Gene Ontology (GO)

The Gene Ontology (GO) provides a framework and set of concepts for describing the functions of gene products from all organisms.

Open in the Ontology Lookup Service (OLS)


acetate ester transport [GO_1901374]

The directed movement of an acetate ester into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

acetylcholine secretion [GO_0061526]

The regulated release of acetylcholine by a cell.

acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014055]

The regulated release of acetylcholine by a cell. The acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter that acts in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS).

acetylcholine transport [GO_0015870]

The directed movement of acetylcholine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Acetylcholine is an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline and functions as a neurotransmitter, released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions.

acid secretion [GO_0046717]

The controlled release of acid by a cell or a tissue.

acid-amino acid ligase activity [GO_0016881]

Catalysis of the ligation of an acid to an amino acid via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

acidic amino acid transport [GO_0015800]

The directed movement of acidic amino acids, amino acids with a pH below 7, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

adult behavior [GO_0030534]

Behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

adult feeding behavior [GO_0008343]

Feeding behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘feeding behavior ; GO:0007631’.

adult locomotory behavior [GO_0008344]

Locomotory behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘locomotory behavior ; GO:0007626’.

adult walking behavior [GO_0007628]

The behavior of an adult relating to the progression of that organism along the ground by the process of lifting and setting down each leg.

aggressive behavior [GO_0002118]

A behavioral interaction between organisms in which one organism has the intention of inflicting physical damage on another individual.

aging [GO_0007568]

A developmental process that is a deterioration and loss of function over time. Aging includes loss of functions such as resistance to disease, homeostasis, and fertility, as well as wear and tear. Aging includes cellular senescence, but is more inclusive. May precede death and may succeed developmental maturation (GO:0021700).

ameboidal-type cell migration [GO_0001667]

Cell migration that is accomplished by extension and retraction of a pseudopodium. Note that this term refers to a mode of migration rather than to any particular cell type.

amide transport [GO_0042886]

The directed movement of an amide, any compound containing one, two, or three acyl groups attached to a nitrogen atom, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amine transport [GO_0015837]

The directed movement of amines, including polyamines, organic compounds containing one or more amino groups, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amino acid transport [GO_0006865]

The directed movement of amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

ammonium transport [GO_0015696]

The directed movement of ammonium into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Ammonium is the cation NH4+ which is formed from N2 by root-nodule bacteria in leguminous plants and is an excretory product in ammonotelic animals.

anatomical structure development [GO_0048856]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an anatomical structure from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the structure and ends with the mature structure, whatever form that may be including its natural destruction. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

anatomical structure formation involved in morphogenesis [GO_0048646]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an anatomical structure from unspecified parts. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the discrete structure and ends when the structural rudiment is recognizable. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome. Note that, for example, the formation of a pseudopod in an amoeba would not be considered formation involved in morphogenesis because it would not be thought of as the formation of an anatomical structure that was part of the shaping of the amoeba during its development. The formation of an axon from a neuron would be considered the formation of an anatomical structure involved in morphogenesis because it contributes to the creation of the form of the neuron in a developmental sense.

anatomical structure morphogenesis [GO_0009653]

The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.

anesthesia-resistant memory [GO_0007615]

The memory process that results in the formation of consolidated memory resistant to disruption of the patterned activity of the brain, without requiring protein synthesis.

animal organ development [GO_0048513]

Development of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Development pertains to the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a structure over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0009887]

Morphogenesis of an animal organ. An organ is defined as a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

anion transport [GO_0006820]

The directed movement of anions, atoms or small molecules with a net negative charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

anterograde trans-synaptic signaling [GO_0098916]

Cell-cell signaling from pre to post-synapse, across the synaptic cleft.

associative learning [GO_0008306]

Learning by associating a stimulus (the cause) with a particular outcome (the effect).

axis specification [GO_0009798]

The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of a pattern along a line or around a point.

axon [GO_0030424]

The long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.

axon cytoplasm [GO_1904115]

Any cytoplasm that is part of a axon.

axonal dopamine secretion [GO_0099124]

The regulated release of dopamine from an axon.

azole transmembrane transport [GO_0045117]

The directed movement of azoles, heterocyclic compounds found in many biologically important substances, across a lipid bilayer, across a membrane.

backward locomotion [GO_0043057]

Posterior movement of an organism, e.g. following the direction of the tail of an animal.

behavior [GO_0007610]

The internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of animals (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli, via a mechanism that involves nervous system activity. 1. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation reviews. 2. While a broader definition of behavior encompassing plants and single cell organisms would be justified on the basis of some usage (see PMID:20160973 for discussion), GO uses a tight definition that limits behavior to animals and to responses involving the nervous system, excluding plant responses that GO classifies under development, and responses of unicellular organisms that has general classifications for covering the responses of cells in multicellular organisms (e.g. cell chemotaxis).

behavioral response to nutrient [GO_0051780]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a nutrient stimulus.

behavioral response to pain [GO_0048266]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a pain stimulus. Pain stimuli cause activation of nociceptors, peripheral receptors for pain, include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli.

behavioral response to starvation [GO_0042595]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of deprivation of nourishment.

binding [GO_0005488]

The selective, non-covalent, often stoichiometric, interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct, manual gene product annotation. Please choose a more specific child term, or request a new one if no suitable term is available. For ligands that bind to signal transducing receptors, consider the molecular function term ‘receptor binding ; GO:0005102’ and its children.

biological adhesion [GO_0022610]

The attachment of a cell or organism to a substrate, another cell, or other organism. Biological adhesion includes intracellular attachment between membrane regions.

biological phase [GO_0044848]

A distinct period or stage in a biological process or cycle. Note that phases are is_a disjoint from other biological processes. happens_during relationships can operate between phases and other biological processes e.g. DNA replication happens_during S phase.

biological regulation [GO_0065007]

Any process that modulates a measurable attribute of any biological process, quality or function.

biological_process [GO_0008150]

A biological process represents a specific objective that the organism is genetically programmed to achieve. Biological processes are often described by their outcome or ending state, e.g., the biological process of cell division results in the creation of two daughter cells (a divided cell) from a single parent cell. A biological process is accomplished by a particular set of molecular functions carried out by specific gene products (or macromolecular complexes), often in a highly regulated manner and in a particular temporal sequence. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. Note that when this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ND, no data, is used to indicate this. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this.

body fluid secretion [GO_0007589]

The controlled release of a fluid by a cell or tissue in an animal.

carboxylic acid transport [GO_0046942]

The directed movement of carboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

catabolic process [GO_0009056]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.

catalytic activity [GO_0003824]

Catalysis of a biochemical reaction at physiological temperatures. In biologically catalyzed reactions, the reactants are known as substrates, and the catalysts are naturally occurring macromolecular substances known as enzymes. Enzymes possess specific binding sites for substrates, and are usually composed wholly or largely of protein, but RNA that has catalytic activity (ribozyme) is often also regarded as enzymatic.

catalytic activity, acting on a protein [GO_0140096]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a protein.

catecholamine secretion [GO_0050432]

The regulated release of catecholamines by a cell. The catecholamines are a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine transport [GO_0051937]

The directed movement of catecholamines, a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

cation transport [GO_0006812]

The directed movement of cations, atoms or small molecules with a net positive charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

cell adhesion [GO_0007155]

The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.

cell adhesion mediator activity [GO_0098631]

The binding by a cell-adhesion protein on a cell surface to an adhesion molecule on another cell surface, to mediate adhesion of the cell to the external substrate or to another cell.

cell adhesion molecule binding [GO_0050839]

Binding to a cell adhesion molecule.

cell communication [GO_0007154]

Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

cell cortex [GO_0005938]

The region of a cell that lies just beneath the plasma membrane and often, but not always, contains a network of actin filaments and associated proteins.

cell cortex region [GO_0099738]

The complete extent of cell cortex that underlies some some region of the plasma membrane.

cell cycle [GO_0007049]

The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material followed by the division of the cell, but in endocycles or syncytial cells nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division.

cell cycle phase [GO_0022403]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

cell cycle process [GO_0022402]

The cellular process that ensures successive accurate and complete genome replication and chromosome segregation.

cell death [GO_0008219]

Any biological process that results in permanent cessation of all vital functions of a cell. A cell should be considered dead when any one of the following molecular or morphological criteria is met: (1) the cell has lost the integrity of its plasma membrane; (2) the cell, including its nucleus, has undergone complete fragmentation into discrete bodies (frequently referred to as apoptotic bodies). The cell corpse (or its fragments) may be engulfed by an adjacent cell in vivo, but engulfment of whole cells should not be considered a strict criteria to define cell death as, under some circumstances, live engulfed cells can be released from phagosomes (see PMID:18045538). This term should not be used for direct annotation. The only exception should be when experimental data (e.g., staining with trypan blue or propidium iodide) show that cell death has occurred, but fail to provide details on death modality (accidental versus programmed). When information is provided on the cell death mechanism, annotations should be made to the appropriate descendant of ‘cell death’ (such as, but not limited to, GO:0097300 ‘programmed necrotic cell death’ or GO:0006915 ‘apoptotic process’). Also, if experimental data suggest that a gene product influences cell death indirectly, rather than being involved in the death process directly, consider annotating to a ‘regulation’ term.

cell division [GO_0051301]

The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells. Note that this term differs from ‘cytokinesis ; GO:0000910’ in that cytokinesis does not include nuclear division.

cell growth [GO_0016049]

The process in which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present.

cell junction [GO_0030054]

A cellular component that forms a specialized region of connection between two or more cells, or between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or between two membrane-bound components of a cell, such as flagella.

cell migration [GO_0016477]

The controlled self-propelled movement of a cell from one site to a destination guided by molecular cues. Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.

cell migration involved in gastrulation [GO_0042074]

The migration of individual cells within the blastocyst to help establish the multi-layered body plan of the organism (gastrulation). For example, the migration of cells from the surface to the interior of the embryo (ingression).

cell motility [GO_0048870]

Any process involved in the controlled self-propelled movement of a cell that results in translocation of the cell from one place to another.

cell periphery [GO_0071944]

The part of a cell encompassing the cell cortex, the plasma membrane, and any external encapsulating structures.

cell projection [GO_0042995]

A prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell-cell signaling [GO_0007267]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another. This process includes signal transduction in the receiving cell and, where applicable, release of a ligand and any processes that actively facilitate its transport and presentation to the receiving cell. Examples include signaling via soluble ligands, via cell adhesion molecules and via gap junctions.

cellular anatomical entity [GO_0110165]

A part of a cellular organism that is either an immaterial entity or a material entity with granularity above the level of a protein complex but below that of an anatomical system. Or, a substance produced by a cellular organism with granularity above the level of a protein complex.

cellular aromatic compound metabolic process [GO_0006725]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving aromatic compounds, any organic compound characterized by one or more planar rings, each of which contains conjugated double bonds and delocalized pi electrons, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular component organization [GO_0016043]

A process that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component.

cellular component organization or biogenesis [GO_0071840]

A process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component.

cellular localization [GO_0051641]

A cellular localization process whereby a substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within a cell including the localization of substances or cellular entities to the cell membrane.

cellular macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0044260]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular metabolic process [GO_0044237]

The chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0034641]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving various organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular process [GO_0009987]

Any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

cellular process involved in reproduction in multicellular organism [GO_0022412]

A process, occurring at the cellular level, that is involved in the reproductive function of a multicellular organism.

cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0044267]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general, occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes cellular protein modification.

cellular protein modification process [GO_0006464]

The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications) occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).

cellular response to abiotic stimulus [GO_0071214]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an abiotic (non-living) stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to alcohol [GO_0097306]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alcohol stimulus.

cellular response to alkaloid [GO_0071312]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alkaloid stimulus. Alkaloids are a large group of nitrogenous substances found in naturally in plants, many of which have extracts that are pharmacologically active.

cellular response to antibiotic [GO_0071236]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms.

cellular response to caffeine [GO_0071313]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a caffeine stimulus. Caffeine is an alkaloid found in numerous plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon them.

cellular response to chemical stimulus [GO_0070887]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a chemical stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_0006974]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.

cellular response to endogenous stimulus [GO_0071495]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus arising within the organism. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to environmental stimulus [GO_0104004]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an environmental stimulus.

cellular response to farnesol [GO_0097308]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a farnesol stimulus.

cellular response to light stimulus [GO_0071482]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a light stimulus, electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths classified as infrared, visible or ultraviolet light.

cellular response to lipid [GO_0071396]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipid stimulus.

cellular response to nitrogen compound [GO_1901699]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitrogen compound stimulus.

cellular response to organic cyclic compound [GO_0071407]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.

cellular response to organic substance [GO_0071310]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.

cellular response to organonitrogen compound [GO_0071417]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organonitrogen stimulus. An organonitrogen compound is formally a compound containing at least one carbon-nitrogen bond.

cellular response to oxygen-containing compound [GO_1901701]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an oxygen-containing compound stimulus.

cellular response to purine-containing compound [GO_0071415]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a purine-containing compound stimulus.

cellular response to radiation [GO_0071478]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an electromagnetic radiation stimulus. Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation. Note that ‘radiation’ refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength.

cellular response to stimulus [GO_0051716]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. The process begins with detection of the stimulus by a cell and ends with a change in state or activity or the cell. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to stress [GO_0033554]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation). Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to xenobiotic stimulus [GO_0071466]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a xenobiotic, a compound foreign to the organism exposed to it. It may be synthesized by another organism (like ampicilin) or it can be a synthetic chemical.

cellular_component [GO_0005575]

A location, relative to cellular compartments and structures, occupied by a macromolecular machine when it carries out a molecular function. There are two ways in which the gene ontology describes locations of gene products: (1) relative to cellular structures (e.g., cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane) or compartments (e.g., mitochondrion), and (2) the stable macromolecular complexes of which they are parts (e.g., the ribosome). Note that, in addition to forming the root of the cellular component ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose cellular component is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the cellular component of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the cellular component ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose cellular component is unknown. Note that when this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the cellular component of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ND, no data, is used to indicate this.

chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0007268]

The vesicular release of classical neurotransmitter molecules from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

chemosensory behavior [GO_0007635]

Behavior that is dependent upon the sensation of chemicals.

chordate embryonic development [GO_0043009]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation through a stage including a notochord and neural tube until birth or egg hatching.

circadian behavior [GO_0048512]

The specific behavior of an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

circadian mating behavior [GO_0035648]

The fluctuation in mating behavior that occurs over an approximately 24 hour cycle.

circadian rhythm [GO_0007623]

Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

circadian sleep/wake cycle [GO_0042745]

The cycle from wakefulness through an orderly succession of sleep states and stages that occurs on an approximately 24 hour rhythm.

circadian sleep/wake cycle process [GO_0022410]

A behavioral process involved in the cycle from wakefulness through an orderly succession of sleep states and stages that occurs on an approximately 24 hour rhythm.

circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0050802]

The part of the circadian sleep/wake cycle where the organism is asleep.

cognition [GO_0050890]

The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.

copulation [GO_0007620]

The act of sexual union between male and female, involving the transfer of sperm.

courtship behavior [GO_0007619]

The behavior of an organism for the purpose of attracting sexual partners.

cytokinesis [GO_0000910]

The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of a cell and its partitioning into two daughter cells. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. When annotating eukaryotic species, mitotic or meiotic cytokinesis should always be specified for manual annotation and for prokaryotic species use ‘FtsZ-dependent cytokinesis ; GO:0043093’ or Cdv-dependent cytokinesis ; GO:0061639. Also, note that cytokinesis does not necessarily result in physical separation and detachment of the two daughter cells from each other.

cytoplasm [GO_0005737]

The contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.

cytoplasmic region [GO_0099568]

Any (proper) part of the cytoplasm of a single cell of sufficient size to still be considered cytoplasm.

dendrite [GO_0030425]

A neuron projection that has a short, tapering, morphology. Dendrites receive and integrate signals from other neurons or from sensory stimuli, and conduct nerve impulses towards the axon or the cell body. In most neurons, the impulse is conveyed from dendrites to axon via the cell body, but in some types of unipolar neuron, the impulse does not travel via the cell body.

dendrite cytoplasm [GO_0032839]

All of the contents of a dendrite, excluding the surrounding plasma membrane.

dendritic tree [GO_0097447]

The entire complement of dendrites for a neuron, consisting of each primary dendrite and all its branches.

detection of abiotic stimulus [GO_0009582]

The series of events in which an (non-living) abiotic stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of calcium ion [GO_0005513]

The series of events in which a calcium ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of carbon dioxide [GO_0003031]

The series of events in which a carbon dioxide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus [GO_0009593]

The series of events in which a chemical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050907]

The series of events in which a chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_0001580]

The series of events required for a bitter taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050968]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of salty taste [GO_0001583]

The series of events required for a salty taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell [GO_0050911]

The series of events involved in the perception of smell in which an olfactory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sour taste [GO_0001581]

The series of events required for a sour taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_0001582]

The series of events required for a sweet taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste [GO_0050912]

The series of events involved in the perception of taste in which a gustatory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of umami taste [GO_0046535]

The series of events required for a umami taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal. Umami taste is the savory taste of meats and other foods that are rich in glutamates.

detection of cold stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0120169]

The series of events in which a cold stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of external stimulus [GO_0009581]

The series of events in which an external stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of high humidity [GO_0098516]

The series of events in which high humidity is detected and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of high humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098514]

The series of events in which a high humidity stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal as a part of the sensory detection of high humidity.

detection of hot stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0120168]

The series of events in which a hot stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of humidity [GO_0098513]

The series of events in which a humidity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098512]

The series of events in which a humidity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of humidity.

detection of light stimulus [GO_0009583]

The series of events in which a light stimulus (in the form of photons) is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of light stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050962]

The series of events in which a light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of light.

detection of light stimulus involved in visual perception [GO_0050908]

The series of events involved in visual perception in which a light stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of low humidity [GO_0098517]

The series of events in which low humidity is detected and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of low humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098515]

The series of events in which a low humidity stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal as a part of the sensory detection of low humidity.

detection of mechanical stimulus [GO_0050982]

The series of events by which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in equilibrioception [GO_0050973]

The series of events involved in equilibrioception in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. During equilibrioception, mechanical stimuli may be in the form of input from pressure receptors or from the labyrinth system of the inner ears.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050974]

The series of events in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050966]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sound [GO_0050910]

The series of events involved in the perception of sound vibration in which the vibration is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_0050976]

The series of events involved in the perception of touch in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of wind [GO_0071066]

The series of events involved in the perception of wind in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of osmotic stimulus [GO_0043575]

The series of events in which a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of solutes outside the organism or cell is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of pheromone [GO_0043695]

The series of events in which a pheromone stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus [GO_0051606]

The series of events in which a stimulus is received by a cell or organism and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050906]

The series of events involved in sensory perception in which a sensory stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0062149]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus [GO_0016048]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus (hot or cold) is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050961]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050965]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0050960]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of visible light [GO_0009584]

The series of events in which a visible light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. A visible light stimulus is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived visually by an organism; for organisms lacking a visual system, this can be defined as light with a wavelength within the range 380 to 780 nm.

developmental growth [GO_0048589]

The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell, where the increase in size or mass has the specific outcome of the progression of the organism over time from one condition to another.

developmental growth involved in morphogenesis [GO_0060560]

The increase in size or mass of an anatomical structure that contributes to the structure attaining its shape.

developmental process [GO_0032502]

A biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an integrated living unit: an anatomical structure (which may be a subcellular structure, cell, tissue, or organ), or organism over time from an initial condition to a later condition.

developmental process involved in reproduction [GO_0003006]

A developmental process in which a progressive change in the state of some part of an organism, germline or somatic, specifically contributes to its ability to form offspring.

dicarboxylic acid transport [GO_0006835]

The directed movement of dicarboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

digestion [GO_0007586]

The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

digestive system process [GO_0022600]

A physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

directional locomotion [GO_0033058]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another along an axis.

DNA metabolic process [GO_0006259]

Any cellular metabolic process involving deoxyribonucleic acid. This is one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from one, or more commonly, two, strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides.

DNA repair [GO_0006281]

The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e.g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.

dopamine secretion [GO_0014046]

The regulated release of dopamine by a cell. Dopamine is a catecholamine and a precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system but it is also produced peripherally and acts as a hormone.

dopamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061527]

The regulated release of dopamine by a cell in which the dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

dopamine transport [GO_0015872]

The directed movement of dopamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.

dormancy process [GO_0022611]

A developmental process in which dormancy (sometimes called a dormant state) is induced, maintained or broken. Dormancy is a suspension of most physiological activity and growth that can be reactivated. In plants and animals, dormancy may be a response to environmental conditions such as seasonality or extreme heat, drought, or cold. In plants, dormancy may involve the formation of dormant buds, and may be preceded by the senescence of plant parts such as leaves in woody plants or most of the shoot system in herbaceous perennials. The exit from dormancy in vascular plants is marked by resumed growth of buds and/or growth of vascular cambium.

dorsal/ventral axis specification [GO_0009950]

The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the dorsal/ventral axis. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

dorsal/ventral pattern formation [GO_0009953]

The regionalization process in which the areas along the dorsal/ventral axis are established that will lead to differences in cell differentiation. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

eclosion [GO_0007562]

The emergence of an adult insect from a pupa case.

eclosion rhythm [GO_0008062]

The timing of the emergence of the adult fly from its pupal case, which usually occurs at dawn.

ectoderm development [GO_0007398]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ectoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In animal embryos, the ectoderm is the outer germ layer of the embryo, formed during gastrulation.

ectoderm formation [GO_0001705]

The formation of ectoderm during gastrulation.

embryo development [GO_0009790]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.

embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching [GO_0009792]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo over time, from zygote formation until the end of the embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic life stage is organism-specific and may be somewhat arbitrary; for mammals it is usually considered to be birth, for insects the hatching of the first instar larva from the eggshell.

embryonic cleavage [GO_0040016]

The first few specialized divisions of an activated animal egg.

embryonic epithelial tube formation [GO_0001838]

The morphogenesis of an embryonic epithelium into a tube-shaped structure.

embryonic morphogenesis [GO_0048598]

The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized during the embryonic phase. The embryonic phase begins with zygote formation. The end of the embryonic phase is organism-specific. For example, it would be at birth for mammals, larval hatching for insects and seed dormancy in plants.

endocrine hormone secretion [GO_0060986]

The regulated release of a hormone into the circulatory system.

endocrine process [GO_0050886]

The process that involves the secretion of or response to endocrine hormones. An endocrine hormone is a hormone released into the circulatory system.

endoderm development [GO_0007492]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endoderm is the innermost germ layer that develops into the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs and associated tissues.

endoderm formation [GO_0001706]

The formation of the endoderm during gastrulation.

endomembrane system [GO_0012505]

A collection of membranous structures involved in transport within the cell. The main components of the endomembrane system are endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles, cell membrane and nuclear envelope. Members of the endomembrane system pass materials through each other or though the use of vesicles.

endomitotic cell cycle [GO_0007113]

A mitotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are replicated and sister chromatids separate, but spindle formation, nuclear membrane breakdown and nuclear division do not occur, resulting in an increased number of chromosomes in the cell. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘abortive mitotic cell cycle ; GO:0033277’. Although abortive mitosis is sometimes called endomitosis, GO:0033277 refers to a process in which a mitotic spindle forms and chromosome separation begins.

energy taxis [GO_0009453]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to physical parameters involved in energy generation, such as light, oxygen, and oxidizable substrates.

entrainment of circadian clock [GO_0009649]

The synchronization of a circadian rhythm to environmental time cues such as light.

entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod [GO_0043153]

The synchronization of a circadian rhythm to photoperiod, the intermittent cycle of light (day) and dark (night).

entry into diapause [GO_0055115]

The dormancy process that results in entry into diapause. Diapause is a neurohormonally mediated, dynamic state of low metabolic activity. Associated characteristics of this form of dormancy include reduced morphogenesis, increased resistance to environmental extremes, and altered or reduced behavioral activity. Full expression develops in a species-specific manner, usually in response to a number of environmental stimuli that precede unfavorable conditions. Once diapause has begun, metabolic activity is suppressed even if conditions favorable for development prevail. Once initiated, only certain stimuli are capable of releasing the organism from this state, and this characteristic is essential in distinguishing diapause from hibernation.

entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0055116]

The dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

envelope [GO_0031975]

A multilayered structure surrounding all or part of a cell; encompasses one or more lipid bilayers, and may include a cell wall layer; also includes the space between layers.

enzyme regulator activity [GO_0030234]

Binds to and modulates the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

epithelial tube formation [GO_0072175]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an epithelial tube.

epithelial tube morphogenesis [GO_0060562]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tube are generated and organized from an epithelium. Epithelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues, with tube shape and organization varying from the single-celled excretory organ in Caenorhabditis elegans to the branching trees of the mammalian kidney and insect tracheal system.

epithelium development [GO_0060429]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an epithelium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An epithelium is a tissue that covers the internal or external surfaces of an anatomical structure.

equilibrioception [GO_0050957]

The series of events required for an organism to receive an orientational stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Equilibrioception refers to a combination of processes by which an organism can perceive its orientation with respect to gravity. In animals, stimuli come from labyrinth system of the inner ears, monitoring the direction of motion; visual stimuli, with information on orientation and motion; pressure receptors, which tell the organism which body surfaces are in contact with the ground; and proprioceptive cues, which report which parts of the body are in motion.

establishment of localization [GO_0051234]

Any process that localizes a substance or cellular component. This may occur via movement, tethering or selective degradation.

establishment of localization in cell [GO_0051649]

Any process, occuring in a cell, that localizes a substance or cellular component. This may occur via movement, tethering or selective degradation.

establishment of planar polarity [GO_0001736]

Coordinated organization of groups of cells in the plane of an epithelium, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

establishment of tissue polarity [GO_0007164]

Coordinated organization of groups of cells in a tissue, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

export from cell [GO_0140352]

The directed movement of some substance from a cell, into the extracellular region. This may occur via transport across the plasma membrane or via exocytosis.

feeding behavior [GO_0007631]

Behavior associated with the intake of food. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

female mating behavior [GO_0060180]

The specific behavior of a female organism that is associated with reproduction.

flight [GO_0060361]

Self-propelled movement of an organism from one location to another through the air, usually by means of active wing movement.

FN3KRP phosphorylates PsiAm, RibAm [GO_0016301]

Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule. Note that this term encompasses all activities that transfer a single phosphate group; although ATP is by far the most common phosphate donor, reactions using other phosphate donors are included in this term.

formation of primary germ layer [GO_0001704]

The formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm during gastrulation.

forward locomotion [GO_0043056]

Anterior movement of an organism, following the direction of the head of the animal.

G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007186]

A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The pathway can start from the plasma membrane, Golgi or nuclear membrane.

G-protein coupled receptor activity [GO_0004930]

Combining with an extracellular signal and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014051]

The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell or a tissue. The gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain but is also found in several extraneural tissues.

gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061534]

The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell, in which the gamma-aminobutyric acid acts as a neurotransmitter.

gamma-aminobutyric acid transport [GO_0015812]

The directed movement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. See also the biological process term ‘neurotransmitter transport ; GO:0006836’.

gastrulation [GO_0007369]

A complex and coordinated series of cellular movements that occurs at the end of cleavage during embryonic development of most animals. The details of gastrulation vary from species to species, but usually result in the formation of the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

glutamate secretion [GO_0014047]

The controlled release of glutamate by a cell. The glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system.

glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061535]

The controlled release of glutamate by a cell, in which the glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter.

glycine secretion [GO_0061536]

The controlled release of glycine by a cell.

glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061537]

The controlled release of glycine by a cell, in which glycine acts as a neurotransmitter.

glycine transport [GO_0015816]

The directed movement of glycine, aminoethanoic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

gravitaxis [GO_0042332]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to gravity.

grooming behavior [GO_0007625]

The specific behavior of an organism relating to grooming, cleaning and brushing to remove dirt and parasites.

growth [GO_0040007]

The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell. See also the biological process term ‘cell growth ; GO:0016049’.

hatching [GO_0035188]

The emergence of an immature organism from a protective structure.

hatching behavior [GO_0035187]

The specific behavior of an organism during the emergence from an egg shell. In Drosophila for example, the larva swings its head reiteratively through a semicircular arc, using its mouth hooks to tear apart the chorion in front of it and thus free itself from within the egg shell.

heterocycle metabolic process [GO_0046483]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving heterocyclic compounds, those with a cyclic molecular structure and at least two different atoms in the ring (or rings).

histamine secretion [GO_0001821]

The regulated release of histamine by a cell or tissue. It is formed by decarboxylation of histidine and it acts through receptors in smooth muscle and in secretory systems.

histamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061538]

The controlled release of histamine by a cell, in which the histamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

histamine transport [GO_0051608]

The directed movement of histamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Histamine is a physiologically active amine, found in plant and animal tissue and released from mast cells as part of an allergic reaction in humans.

hormone secretion [GO_0046879]

The regulated release of hormones, substances with a specific regulatory effect on a particular organ or group of cells.

hormone transport [GO_0009914]

The directed movement of hormones into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

immune response [GO_0006955]

Any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat.

immune system process [GO_0002376]

Any process involved in the development or functioning of the immune system, an organismal system for calibrated responses to potential internal or invasive threats. Note that this term is a direct child of ‘biological_process ; GO:0008150’ because some immune system processes are types of cellular process (GO:0009987), whereas others are types of multicellular organism process (GO:0032501).

insemination [GO_0007320]

The introduction of semen or sperm into the genital tract of a female.

interphase [GO_0051325]

The cell cycle phase following cytokinesis which begins with G1 phase, proceeds through S phase and G2 phase and ends when prophase of meiosis or mitosis begins. During interphase the cell readies itself for meiosis or mitosis and the replication of its DNA occurs. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

intestinal absorption [GO_0050892]

Any process in which nutrients are taken up from the contents of the intestine.

intracellular anatomical structure [GO_0005622]

A component of a cell contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm.

intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043231]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.

intracellular organelle [GO_0043229]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane.

intracellular signal transduction [GO_0035556]

The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and finally trigger a change in the function or state of the cell.

intracellular signal transduction involved in positive regulation of cell growth [GO_1905427]

Any intracellular signal transduction that is involved in positive regulation of cell growth.

intracellular transport [GO_0046907]

The directed movement of substances within a cell.

ion transport [GO_0006811]

The directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

jump response [GO_0007630]

The sudden, usually upward, movement off the ground or other surface through sudden muscular effort in the legs, following exposure to an external stimulus.

kinase activator activity [GO_0019209]

Binds to and increases the activity of a kinase, an enzyme which catalyzes of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

kinase inhibitor activity [GO_0019210]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a kinase.

kinase regulator activity [GO_0019207]

Modulates the activity of a kinase, an enzyme which catalyzes of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

larval behavior [GO_0030537]

Behavior in a larval form of an organism, an immature organism that must undergo metamorphosis to assume adult characteristics. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

larval locomotory behavior [GO_0008345]

Locomotory behavior in a larval (immature) organism. See also the biological process term ‘locomotory behavior ; GO:0007626’.

larval turning behavior [GO_0035179]

Fine-tuning the spatial position of a larva in response to variability in their environment. For example, reorientation of a larva in the direction of a food source.

learning [GO_0007612]

Any process in an organism in which a relatively long-lasting adaptive behavioral change occurs as the result of experience.

learning or memory [GO_0007611]

The acquisition and processing of information and/or the storage and retrieval of this information over time.

ligase activity [GO_0016874]

Catalysis of the joining of two molecules, or two groups within a single molecule, using the energy from the hydrolysis of ATP, a similar triphosphate, or a pH gradient.

ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds [GO_0016879]

Catalysis of the joining of two molecules, or two groups within a single molecule, via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

ligase regulator activity [GO_0055103]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a ligase.

lipid catabolic process [GO_0016042]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent.

lipid digestion [GO_0044241]

The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by living organisms to break down ingested lipids into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

lipid localization [GO_0010876]

Any process in which a lipid is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

lipid metabolic process [GO_0006629]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.

lipid storage [GO_0019915]

The accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

localization [GO_0051179]

Any process in which a cell, a substance, or a cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported, tethered to or otherwise maintained in a specific location. In the case of substances, localization may also be achieved via selective degradation.

localization of cell [GO_0051674]

Any process in which a cell is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.

localization within membrane [GO_0051668]

Any process in which a substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within a membrane.

locomotion [GO_0040011]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another.

locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0031987]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

locomotor rhythm [GO_0045475]

The rhythm of the locomotor activity of an organism during its 24 hour activity cycle.

locomotory behavior [GO_0007626]

The specific movement from place to place of an organism in response to external or internal stimuli. Locomotion of a whole organism in a manner dependent upon some combination of that organism’s internal state and external conditions.

long-term memory [GO_0007616]

The memory process that deals with the storage, retrieval and modification of information a long time (typically weeks, months or years) after receiving that information. This type of memory is typically dependent on gene transcription regulated by second messenger activation.

M phase [GO_0000279]

A cell cycle phase during which nuclear division occurs, and which is comprises the phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

macromolecule localization [GO_0033036]

Any process in which a macromolecule is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0043170]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

macromolecule modification [GO_0043412]

The covalent alteration of one or more monomeric units in a polypeptide, polynucleotide, polysaccharide, or other biological macromolecule, resulting in a change in its properties.

maintenance of location [GO_0051235]

Any process in which a cell, substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is maintained in a location and prevented from moving elsewhere.

male courtship behavior [GO_0008049]

The behavior of a male, for the purpose of attracting a sexual partner. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

male courtship behavior, veined wing extension [GO_0048065]

The process during courtship where the male insect extends his wings. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

male courtship behavior, veined wing generated song production [GO_0045433]

The process during wing vibration where the male insect produces a species-specific acoustic signal called a love song.

male courtship behavior, veined wing vibration [GO_0016545]

The process during courtship where the male insect vibrates his wings. An example of this is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

male mating behavior [GO_0060179]

The specific behavior of a male organism that is associated with reproduction.

mating [GO_0007618]

The pairwise union of individuals for the purpose of sexual reproduction, ultimately resulting in the formation of zygotes.

mating behavior [GO_0007617]

The behavioral interactions between organisms for the purpose of mating, or sexual reproduction resulting in the formation of zygotes.

medium-term memory [GO_0072375]

The memory process that deals with the storage, retrieval and modification of information received at a time ago that is intermediate between that of short and long term memory (30min - 7hrs in Drosophila melanogaster).

meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051321]

Progression through the phases of the meiotic cell cycle, in which canonically a cell replicates to produce four offspring with half the chromosomal content of the progenitor cell via two nuclear divisions. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘GO:0140013 ; meiotic nuclear division’. ‘GO:0051321 ; meiotic cell cycle represents the entire mitotic cell cycle, while ‘GO:0140013 meiotic nuclear division’ specifically represents the actual nuclear division step of the mitotic cell cycle.

meiotic cell cycle phase [GO_0098762]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the meiotic cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. This term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation should be to ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (e.g. mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

meiotic cell cycle process [GO_1903046]

A process that is part of the meiotic cell cycle.

meiotic interphase [GO_0051328]

The cell cycle phase which begins after cytokinesis and ends when meiotic prophase begins. Meiotic cells have an interphase after each meiotic division, but only interphase I involves replication of the cell’s DNA. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

meiotic M phase [GO_0051327]

A cell cycle phase during which nuclear division occurs, and which is comprises the phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and occurs as part of a meiotic cell cycle. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

meiotic nuclear division [GO_0140013]

One of the two nuclear divisions that occur as part of the meiotic cell cycle.

membrane [GO_0016020]

A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.

membrane fission [GO_0090148]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the separation of a single continuous membrane into two membranes.

membrane organization [GO_0061024]

A process which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a membrane. A membrane is a double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a single or double lipid bilayer; also includes associated proteins.

membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043227]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.

memory [GO_0007613]

The activities involved in the mental information processing system that receives (registers), modifies, stores, and retrieves informational stimuli. The main stages involved in the formation and retrieval of memory are encoding (processing of received information by acquisition), storage (building a permanent record of received information as a result of consolidation) and retrieval (calling back the stored information and use it in a suitable way to execute a given task).

mesoderm development [GO_0007498]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mesoderm is the middle germ layer that develops into muscle, bone, cartilage, blood and connective tissue.

mesoderm formation [GO_0001707]

The process that gives rise to the mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048332]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the mesoderm are generated and organized.

metabolic process [GO_0008152]

The chemical reactions and pathways, including anabolism and catabolism, by which living organisms transform chemical substances. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and replication, and protein synthesis and degradation. Note that metabolic processes do not include single functions or processes such as protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acids, nor receptor-ligand interactions.

mitotic cell cycle [GO_0000278]

Progression through the phases of the mitotic cell cycle, the most common eukaryotic cell cycle, which canonically comprises four successive phases called G1, S, G2, and M and includes replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells. In some variant cell cycles nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division, or G1 and G2 phases may be absent. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘GO:0140014 ; mitotic nuclear division’. ‘GO:0000278 ; mitotic cell cycle represents the entire mitotic cell cycle, while ‘GO:0140014 ; mitotic nuclear division’ specifically represents the actual nuclear division step of the mitotic cell cycle.

mitotic cell cycle phase [GO_0098763]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the mitotic cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. This term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation should be to ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (e.g. mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

mitotic cell cycle process [GO_1903047]

A process that is part of the mitotic cell cycle.

mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0045448]

The eukaryotic cell cycle in which a cell is duplicated without changing ploidy, occurring in the embryo.

mitotic interphase [GO_0051329]

The cell cycle phase following cytokinesis which begins with G1 phase, proceeds through S phase and G2 phase and ends when mitotic prophase begins. During interphase the cell readies itself for mitosis and the replication of its DNA occurs. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

mitotic M phase [GO_0000087]

A cell cycle phase during which nuclear division occurs, and which is comprises the phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and occurs as part of a mitotic cell cycle. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

mitotic nuclear division [GO_0140014]

A mitotic cell cycle process comprising the steps by which the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell divides; the process involves condensation of chromosomal DNA into a highly compacted form. Canonically, mitosis produces two daughter nuclei whose chromosome complement is identical to that of the mother cell.

modulation of chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0050804]

Any process that modulates the frequency or amplitude of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. Amplitude, in this case, refers to the change in postsynaptic membrane potential due to a single instance of synaptic transmission.

molecular function regulator [GO_0098772]

A molecular function regulator regulates the activity of its target via non-covalent binding that does not result in covalent modification to the target. Examples of molecular function regulators include regulatory subunits of multimeric enzymes and channels. Mechanisms of regulation include allosteric changes in the target and competitive inhibition.

molecular transducer activity [GO_0060089]

A compound molecular function in which an effector function is controlled by one or more regulatory components.

molecular_function [GO_0003674]

A molecular process that can be carried out by the action of a single macromolecular machine, usually via direct physical interactions with other molecular entities. Function in this sense denotes an action, or activity, that a gene product (or a complex) performs. These actions are described from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) biochemical activity, and (2) role as a component in a larger system/process. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the molecular function ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose molecular function is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the molecular function of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this. Despite its name, this is not a type of ‘function’ in the sense typically defined by upper ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). It is instead a BFO:process carried out by a single gene product or complex.

monoamine transport [GO_0015844]

The directed movement of monoamines, organic compounds that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by an ethylene group (-CH2-CH2-), into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

monocarboxylic acid transport [GO_0015718]

The directed movement of monocarboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

morphogenesis of a polarized epithelium [GO_0001738]

The morphogenetic process in which the anatomical structures of a polarized epithelium are generated and organized. A polarized epithelium is an epithelium where the epithelial sheet is oriented with respect to the planar axis.

morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_0002009]

The process in which the anatomical structures of epithelia are generated and organized. An epithelium consists of closely packed cells arranged in one or more layers, that covers the outer surfaces of the body or lines any internal cavity or tube.

morphogenesis of embryonic epithelium [GO_0016331]

The process in which the anatomical structures of embryonic epithelia are generated and organized.

movement of cell or subcellular component [GO_0006928]

The directed, self-propelled movement of a cell or subcellular component without the involvement of an external agent such as a transporter or a pore. Note that in GO cellular components include whole cells (cell is_a cellular component).

multi-multicellular organism process [GO_0044706]

A multicellular organism process which involves another multicellular organism of the same or different species.

multi-organism process [GO_0051704]

A biological process which involves another organism of the same or different species.

multi-organism reproductive process [GO_0044703]

A biological process that directly contributes to the process of producing new individuals, involving another organism.

multicellular organism development [GO_0007275]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult). Note that this term was ‘developmental process’.

multicellular organism reproduction [GO_0032504]

The biological process in which new individuals are produced by one or two multicellular organisms. The new individuals inherit some proportion of their genetic material from the parent or parents.

multicellular organismal movement [GO_0050879]

Any physiological process involved in changing the position of a multicellular organism or an anatomical part of a multicellular organism.

multicellular organismal process [GO_0032501]

Any biological process, occurring at the level of a multicellular organism, pertinent to its function.

multicellular organismal reproductive process [GO_0048609]

The process, occurring above the cellular level, that is pertinent to the reproductive function of a multicellular organism. This includes the integrated processes at the level of tissues and organs.

multicellular organismal response to stress [GO_0033555]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a multicellular organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).

musculoskeletal movement [GO_0050881]

The movement of an organism or part of an organism using mechanoreceptors, the nervous system, striated muscle and/or the skeletal system.

negative gravitaxis [GO_0048060]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism away from the source of gravity.

negative regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014058]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of acetylcholine.

negative regulation of amine transport [GO_0051953]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amines into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of amino acid transport [GO_0051956]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0110111]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of animal organ morphogenesis.

negative regulation of anion transport [GO_1903792]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of anion transport.

negative regulation of backward locomotion [GO_1905851]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of backward locomotion.

negative regulation of behavior [GO_0048521]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of behavior, the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli.

negative regulation of binding [GO_0051100]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate or extent of binding, the selective interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.

negative regulation of biological process [GO_0048519]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a biological process. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule.

negative regulation of catabolic process [GO_0009895]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances.

negative regulation of catalytic activity [GO_0043086]

Any process that stops or reduces the activity of an enzyme.

negative regulation of catecholamine secretion [GO_0033604]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a catecholamine.

negative regulation of cell adhesion [GO_0007162]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell adhesion.

negative regulation of cell communication [GO_0010648]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication. Cell communication is the process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

negative regulation of cell cycle [GO_0045786]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.

negative regulation of cell cycle process [GO_0010948]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.

negative regulation of cell death [GO_0060548]

Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of cell death. Cell death is the specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.

negative regulation of cell division [GO_0051782]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell division.

negative regulation of cell growth [GO_0030308]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.

negative regulation of cell migration [GO_0030336]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.

negative regulation of cell motility [GO_2000146]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell motility.

negative regulation of cellular component movement [GO_0051271]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of a cellular component.

negative regulation of cellular component organization [GO_0051129]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell structures, including the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.

negative regulation of cellular metabolic process [GO_0031324]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

negative regulation of cellular process [GO_0048523]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular process, any of those that are carried out at the cellular level, but are not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

negative regulation of cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0032269]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

negative regulation of cellular response to alcohol [GO_1905958]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to alcohol.

negative regulation of cellular response to caffeine [GO_1901181]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to caffeine.

negative regulation of cellular response to drug [GO_2001039]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to drug.

negative regulation of circadian rhythm [GO_0042754]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a circadian rhythm behavior.

negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0042321]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the duration or quality of sleep, a readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity that occurs periodically in many animals.

negative regulation of cytokinesis [GO_0032466]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell, and its separation into two daughter cells.

negative regulation of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_1905788]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch.

negative regulation of developmental growth [GO_0048640]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of developmental growth.

negative regulation of developmental process [GO_0051093]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).

negative regulation of digestive system process [GO_0060457]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of a digestive system process, a physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

negative regulation of DNA metabolic process [GO_0051053]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving DNA.

negative regulation of DNA repair [GO_0045738]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA repair.

negative regulation of dopamine secretion [GO_0033602]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of dopamine.

negative regulation of eclosion [GO_0045804]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of eclosion.

negative regulation of ectoderm development [GO_2000384]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ectoderm development.

negative regulation of embryonic development [GO_0045992]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.

negative regulation of entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0061964]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

negative regulation of epithelial tube formation [GO_1905277]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial tube formation. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

negative regulation of feeding behavior [GO_2000252]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of feeding behavior.

negative regulation of forward locomotion [GO_1905849]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of forward locomotion.

negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0045744]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway.

negative regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014053]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

negative regulation of gastrulation [GO_2000542]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of gastrulation.

negative regulation of glutamate secretion [GO_0014050]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of glutamate.

negative regulation of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1903295]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission. An example of this is Rab3gap1 in mouse (Q80UJ7) in PMID:16782817 inferred from mutant phenotype

negative regulation of glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1904625]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glycine secretion, neurotransmission.

negative regulation of growth [GO_0045926]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of growth, the increase in size or mass of all or part of an organism.

negative regulation of hormone secretion [GO_0046888]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a hormone from a cell.

negative regulation of immune response [GO_0050777]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.

negative regulation of immune system process [GO_0002683]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune system process.

negative regulation of intestinal absorption [GO_1904479]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of intestinal absorption.

negative regulation of intracellular signal transduction [GO_1902532]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of intracellular signal transduction.

negative regulation of intracellular transport [GO_0032387]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.

negative regulation of ion transport [GO_0043271]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of kinase activity [GO_0033673]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of kinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

negative regulation of ligase activity [GO_0051352]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate of ligase activity, the catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant breaking of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate.

negative regulation of lipid catabolic process [GO_0050995]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids.

negative regulation of lipid localization [GO_1905953]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lipid localization.

negative regulation of lipid metabolic process [GO_0045833]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids.

negative regulation of lipid storage [GO_0010888]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

negative regulation of locomotion [GO_0040013]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of locomotion of a cell or organism.

negative regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0090327]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate, or extent of the self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

negative regulation of locomotor rhythm [GO_1904060]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of locomotor rhythm.

negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0010605]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

negative regulation of male mating behavior [GO_1902436]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of male mating behavior.

negative regulation of meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051447]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle.

negative regulation of meiotic nuclear division [GO_0045835]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of meiosis.

negative regulation of mesoderm development [GO_2000381]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm development.

negative regulation of mesoderm formation [GO_1905903]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm formation.

negative regulation of metabolic process [GO_0009892]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.

negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO_0045930]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.

negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0045976]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the embryonic mitotic cell cycle.

negative regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO_0045839]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of mitosis. Mitosis is the division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus to produce two daughter nuclei that, usually, contain the identical chromosome complement to their mother.

negative regulation of molecular function [GO_0044092]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate or extent of a molecular function, an elemental biological activity occurring at the molecular level, such as catalysis or binding.

negative regulation of morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_1905331]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of morphogenesis of an epithelium. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

negative regulation of multicellular organismal process [GO_0051241]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.

negative regulation of nervous system development [GO_0051961]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of nervous system development, the origin and formation of nervous tissue.

negative regulation of nervous system process [GO_0031645]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a neurophysiological process.

negative regulation of neurotransmitter secretion [GO_0046929]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a neurotransmitter.

negative regulation of neurotransmitter transport [GO_0051589]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0051172]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.

negative regulation of nuclear division [GO_0051784]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of nuclear division, the partitioning of the nucleus and its genetic information.

negative regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0045934]

Any cellular process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

negative regulation of organelle organization [GO_0010639]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle.

negative regulation of organic acid transport [GO_0032891]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of organic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of oviposition [GO_1901045]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of oviposition.

negative regulation of peptide hormone secretion [GO_0090278]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the regulated release of a peptide hormone from secretory granules.

negative regulation of peptide secretion [GO_0002792]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of peptide secretion.

negative regulation of phosphate metabolic process [GO_0045936]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphates.

negative regulation of phosphorus metabolic process [GO_0010563]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.

negative regulation of phosphorylation [GO_0042326]

Any process that stops, prevents or decreases the rate of addition of phosphate groups to a molecule.

negative regulation of post-embryonic development [GO_0048581]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of post-embryonic development. Post-embryonic development is defined as the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the organism over time, from the completion of embryonic development to the mature structure.

negative regulation of protein binding [GO_0032091]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.

negative regulation of protein metabolic process [GO_0051248]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein.

negative regulation of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal [GO_1903321]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal.

negative regulation of protein modification process [GO_0031400]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the covalent alteration of one or more amino acid residues within a protein.

negative regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO_0031397]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of ubiquitin groups to a protein.

negative regulation of receptor binding [GO_1900121]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a protein or other molecule binding to a receptor.

negative regulation of reproductive process [GO_2000242]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of reproductive process.

negative regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange [GO_1903941]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of respiratory gaseous exchange.

negative regulation of response to alcohol [GO_1901420]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to alcohol.

negative regulation of response to calcium ion [GO_1905946]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to calcium ion.

negative regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_2001021]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to DNA damage stimulus.

negative regulation of response to drug [GO_2001024]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to drug.

negative regulation of response to external stimulus [GO_0032102]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an external stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

negative regulation of response to extracellular stimulus [GO_0032105]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an extracellular stimulus.

negative regulation of response to nutrient levels [GO_0032108]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to nutrient levels.

negative regulation of response to oxidative stress [GO_1902883]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to oxidative stress.

negative regulation of response to stimulus [GO_0048585]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to a stimulus. Response to stimulus is a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

negative regulation of response to wounding [GO_1903035]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to wounding.

negative regulation of saliva secretion [GO_1905747]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of saliva secretion.

negative regulation of secretion [GO_0051048]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of a substance from a cell or a tissue.

negative regulation of secretion by cell [GO_1903531]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of secretion by cell.

negative regulation of sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_1904661]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of bitter taste.

negative regulation of sensory perception of pain [GO_1904057]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of pain.

negative regulation of sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_1904657]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of sweet taste.

negative regulation of serotonin secretion [GO_0014063]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of serotonin.

negative regulation of signal transduction [GO_0009968]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction.

negative regulation of signaling [GO_0023057]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling process.

negative regulation of signaling receptor activity [GO_2000272]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling receptor activity.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission [GO_0050805]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic [GO_0032223]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cholinergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic [GO_0032227]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of dopaminergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter dopamine.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic [GO_0032229]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of GABAergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic [GO_0051967]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glutamate.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic [GO_0060093]

Any process that stops or decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.

negative regulation of transferase activity [GO_0051348]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate of transferase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from a donor compound to an acceptor. This term is useful for grouping, but is too general for manual annotation. Please use a child term instead.

negative regulation of transmembrane transport [GO_0034763]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a solute from one side of a membrane to the other.

negative regulation of transport [GO_0051051]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of turning behavior involved in mating [GO_0061096]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of turning behavior involved in mating. Turning behavior is the sharp ventral turn performed by the male as he approaches either the hermaphrodite head or tail, whilst trying to locate his partner’s vulva. Turning occurs via a sharp ventral coil of the male’s tail.

negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity [GO_0051444]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin transferase activity.

negative regulation of wound healing [GO_0061045]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.

nephrocyte filtration [GO_0097206]

The process by which hemolymph is filtered based on size and charge through a nephrocyte filtration barrier formed by the basement membrane and nephrocyte diaphragm.

nervous system development [GO_0007399]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of nervous tissue over time, from its formation to its mature state.

nervous system process [GO_0050877]

A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of neurological system.

neural tube development [GO_0021915]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the neural tube over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mature structure of the neural tube exists when the tube has been segmented into the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord regions. In addition neural crest has budded away from the epithelium.

neural tube formation [GO_0001841]

The formation of a tube from the flat layer of ectodermal cells known as the neural plate. This will give rise to the central nervous system.

neuromuscular process [GO_0050905]

Any process pertaining to the functions of the nervous and muscular systems of an organism.

neuromuscular process controlling balance [GO_0050885]

Any process that an organism uses to control its balance, the orientation of the organism (or the head of the organism) in relation to the source of gravity. In humans and animals, balance is perceived through visual cues, the labyrinth system of the inner ears and information from skin pressure receptors and muscle and joint receptors.

neuromuscular process controlling posture [GO_0050884]

Any process in which an organism voluntarily modulates its posture, the alignment of its anatomical parts.

neuron projection [GO_0043005]

A prolongation or process extending from a nerve cell, e.g. an axon or dendrite.

neuron projection cytoplasm [GO_0120111]

All of the contents of a plasma membrane bounded neuron projection, excluding the plasma membrane surrounding the projection.

neuron-neuron synaptic transmission [GO_0007270]

The process of synaptic transmission from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse.

neurotransmitter secretion [GO_0007269]

The regulated release of neurotransmitter from the presynapse into the synaptic cleft via calcium-regulated exocytosis during synaptic transmission. A neurotransmitter is any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glycine, gamma-aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.

neurotransmitter transport [GO_0006836]

The directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Neurotransmitters are any chemical substance that is capable of transmitting (or inhibiting the transmission of) a nerve impulse from a neuron to another cell.

neutral amino acid transport [GO_0015804]

The directed movement of neutral amino acids, amino acids with no net charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0006807]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic or inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen.

nitrogen compound transport [GO_0071705]

The directed movement of nitrogen-containing compounds into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

nuclear division [GO_0000280]

The division of a cell nucleus into two nuclei, with DNA and other nuclear contents distributed between the daughter nuclei.

nuclear envelope [GO_0005635]

The double lipid bilayer enclosing the nucleus and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space, a gap of width 20-40 nm (also called the perinuclear space).

nuclear membrane [GO_0031965]

Either of the lipid bilayers that surround the nucleus and form the nuclear envelope; excludes the intermembrane space.

nucleic acid metabolic process [GO_0090304]

Any cellular metabolic process involving nucleic acids.

nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0006139]

Any cellular metabolic process involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

nucleus [GO_0005634]

A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell’s chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.

octopamine secretion [GO_0061539]

The controlled release of octopamine by a cell.

octopamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061540]

The controlled release of octopamine by a cell, in which the octopamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

olfactory behavior [GO_0042048]

The behavior of an organism in response to an odor.

olfactory learning [GO_0008355]

Any process in an organism in which a relatively long-lasting adaptive behavioral change occurs in response to (repeated) exposure to an olfactory cue.

optokinetic behavior [GO_0007634]

The behavior of an organism pertaining to movement of the eyes and of objects in the visual field, as in nystagmus.

optomotor response [GO_0071632]

Eye, head or whole body movements that help to compensate movements of the environment in order to stabilize its image on the retina. In the case of whole body movements, these motor actions may also stabilize a locomotor course in response to some disturbance. Examples include: the optokinetic reflex, which allows human eyes to follow objects in motion while the head remains stationary reflex; the optomotor responses of flying insects and swimming fish.

organelle [GO_0043226]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton, and prokaryotic structures such as anammoxosomes and pirellulosomes. Excludes the plasma membrane.

organelle envelope [GO_0031967]

A double membrane structure enclosing an organelle, including two lipid bilayers and the region between them. In some cases, an organelle envelope may have more than two membranes.

organelle fission [GO_0048285]

The creation of two or more organelles by division of one organelle.

organelle membrane [GO_0031090]

A membrane that is one of the two lipid bilayers of an organelle envelope or the outermost membrane of single membrane bound organelle.

organelle organization [GO_0006996]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle within a cell. An organelle is an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane.

organic acid transport [GO_0015849]

The directed movement of organic acids, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

organic anion transport [GO_0015711]

The directed movement of organic anions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Organic anions are atoms or small molecules with a negative charge which contain carbon in covalent linkage.

organic cation transport [GO_0015695]

The directed movement of organic cations into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Organic cations are atoms or small molecules with a positive charge which contain carbon in covalent linkage.

organic cyclic compound metabolic process [GO_1901360]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic cyclic compound.

organic hydroxy compound transport [GO_0015850]

The directed movement of an organic hydroxy compound (organic alcohol) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. An organic hydroxy compound is an organic compound having at least one hydroxy group attached to a carbon atom.

organic substance catabolic process [GO_1901575]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of an organic substance, any molecular entity containing carbon.

organic substance metabolic process [GO_0071704]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an organic substance, any molecular entity containing carbon.

organic substance transport [GO_0071702]

The directed movement of organic substances into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, or within a multicellular organism by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. An organic substance is a molecular entity that contains carbon.

organism emergence from protective structure [GO_0071684]

The developmental process in which an organism emerges from a surrounding protective structure such as an egg or pupa case.

organonitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_1901564]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organonitrogen compound.

oviposition [GO_0018991]

The deposition of eggs (either fertilized or not) upon a surface or into a medium such as water.

pattern specification process [GO_0007389]

Any developmental process that results in the creation of defined areas or spaces within an organism to which cells respond and eventually are instructed to differentiate.

PC is converted to PS by PTDSS1 [GO_0016740]

Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.

peptide hormone secretion [GO_0030072]

The regulated release of a peptide hormone from a cell.

peptide secretion [GO_0002790]

The controlled release of a peptide from a cell or a tissue.

peptide transport [GO_0015833]

The directed movement of peptides, compounds of two or more amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

phosphate-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0006796]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving the phosphate group, the anion or salt of any phosphoric acid.

phosphorus metabolic process [GO_0006793]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving the nonmetallic element phosphorus or compounds that contain phosphorus, usually in the form of a phosphate group (PO4).

phosphorylation [GO_0016310]

The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide.

photoperiodism [GO_0009648]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detection of, or exposure to, a period of light or dark of a given length, measured relative to a particular duration known as the ‘critical day length’. The critical day length varies between species.

phototaxis [GO_0042331]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to light.

phototransduction [GO_0007602]

The sequence of reactions within a cell required to convert absorbed photons into a molecular signal.

phototransduction, visible light [GO_0007603]

The sequence of reactions within a cell required to convert absorbed photons from visible light into a molecular signal. A visible light stimulus is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived visually by an organism; for organisms lacking a visual system, this can be defined as light with a wavelength within the range 380 to 780 nm.

plasma membrane [GO_0005886]

The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection [GO_0120025]

A prolongation or process extending from a cell and that is bounded by plasma membrane, e.g. a cilium, lamellipodium, or axon.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection cytoplasm [GO_0032838]

All of the contents of a plasma membrane bounded cell projection, excluding the plasma membrane surrounding the projection.

plasma membrane region [GO_0098590]

A membrane that is a (regional) part of the plasma membrane. Note that this term should not be used for direct manual annotation as it should always be possible to choose a more specific subclass.

positive regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014057]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of acetylcholine.

positive regulation of amine transport [GO_0051954]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amines into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of amino acid transport [GO_0051957]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0110110]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of animal organ morphogenesis.

positive regulation of anion transport [GO_1903793]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of anion transport.

positive regulation of backward locomotion [GO_1905852]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of backward locomotion.

positive regulation of behavior [GO_0048520]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of behavior, the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli.

positive regulation of binding [GO_0051099]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of binding, the selective interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.

positive regulation of biological process [GO_0048518]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a biological process. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule.

positive regulation of catabolic process [GO_0009896]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances.

positive regulation of catalytic activity [GO_0043085]

Any process that activates or increases the activity of an enzyme.

positive regulation of catecholamine secretion [GO_0033605]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a catecholamine.

positive regulation of cell adhesion [GO_0045785]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell adhesion.

positive regulation of cell communication [GO_0010647]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication. Cell communication is the process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

positive regulation of cell cycle [GO_0045787]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.

positive regulation of cell cycle process [GO_0090068]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.

positive regulation of cell death [GO_0010942]

Any process that increases the rate or frequency of cell death. Cell death is the specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.

positive regulation of cell division [GO_0051781]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell division.

positive regulation of cell growth [GO_0030307]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.

positive regulation of cell migration [GO_0030335]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.

positive regulation of cell motility [GO_2000147]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell motility.

positive regulation of cellular component movement [GO_0051272]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of a cellular component.

positive regulation of cellular component organization [GO_0051130]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell structures, including the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.

positive regulation of cellular metabolic process [GO_0031325]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

positive regulation of cellular process [GO_0048522]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular process, any of those that are carried out at the cellular level, but are not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0032270]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

positive regulation of cellular response to alcohol [GO_1905959]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to alcohol.

positive regulation of cellular response to drug [GO_2001040]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to drug.

positive regulation of circadian rhythm [GO_0042753]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a circadian rhythm behavior.

positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0045938]

Any process that activates or increases the duration or quality of sleep, a readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity that occurs periodically in many animals.

positive regulation of cytokinesis [GO_0032467]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell, and its separation into two daughter cells.

positive regulation of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_1905789]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch.

positive regulation of developmental growth [GO_0048639]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of developmental growth.

positive regulation of developmental process [GO_0051094]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).

positive regulation of digestive system process [GO_0060456]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of a digestive system process, a physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

positive regulation of DNA metabolic process [GO_0051054]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving DNA.

positive regulation of DNA repair [GO_0045739]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA repair.

positive regulation of dopamine secretion [GO_0033603]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of dopamine.

positive regulation of eclosion [GO_0045805]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of eclosion.

positive regulation of ectoderm development [GO_2000385]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ectoderm development.

positive regulation of embryonic development [GO_0040019]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.

positive regulation of entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0061965]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of the dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

positive regulation of epithelial tube formation [GO_1905278]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial tube formation. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

positive regulation of feeding behavior [GO_2000253]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of feeding behavior.

positive regulation of forward locomotion [GO_1905850]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of forward locomotion.

positive regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0045745]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway activity.

positive regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014054]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

positive regulation of gastrulation [GO_2000543]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of gastrulation.

positive regulation of glutamate secretion [GO_0014049]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of glutamate.

positive regulation of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1903296]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate secretion, where glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter. An example of this is Rab3gap1 in mouse (Q80UJ7) in PMID:16782817 inferred from mutant phenotype

positive regulation of glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1904626]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycine secretion, neurotransmission.

positive regulation of growth [GO_0045927]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of growth, the increase in size or mass of all or part of an organism.

positive regulation of hormone secretion [GO_0046887]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a hormone from a cell.

positive regulation of immune response [GO_0050778]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.

positive regulation of immune system process [GO_0002684]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune system process.

positive regulation of intestinal absorption [GO_1904480]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of intestinal absorption.

positive regulation of intracellular signal transduction [GO_1902533]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of intracellular signal transduction.

positive regulation of intracellular transport [GO_0032388]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.

positive regulation of ion transport [GO_0043270]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of kinase activity [GO_0033674]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of kinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

positive regulation of ligase activity [GO_0051351]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ligase activity, the catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant breaking of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate.

positive regulation of lipid catabolic process [GO_0050996]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids.

positive regulation of lipid localization [GO_1905954]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of lipid localization.

positive regulation of lipid metabolic process [GO_0045834]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids.

positive regulation of lipid storage [GO_0010884]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

positive regulation of locomotion [GO_0040017]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of locomotion of a cell or organism.

positive regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0090326]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate, or extent of the self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

positive regulation of locomotor rhythm [GO_1904061]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of locomotor rhythm.

positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0010604]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

positive regulation of male mating behavior [GO_1902437]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of male mating behavior.

positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051446]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle.

positive regulation of meiotic nuclear division [GO_0045836]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of meiosis.

positive regulation of mesoderm development [GO_2000382]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm development.

positive regulation of mesoderm formation [GO_1905904]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm formation.

positive regulation of metabolic process [GO_0009893]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.

positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO_0045931]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.

positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0045977]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of progression through the embryonic mitotic cell cycle.

positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO_0045840]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitosis.

positive regulation of molecular function [GO_0044093]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of a molecular function, an elemental biological activity occurring at the molecular level, such as catalysis or binding.

positive regulation of morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_1905332]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of morphogenesis of an epithelium. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

positive regulation of multicellular organismal process [GO_0051240]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, any of the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.

positive regulation of nervous system development [GO_0051962]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of nervous system development, the origin and formation of nervous tissue.

positive regulation of nervous system process [GO_0031646]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a neurophysiological process.

positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion [GO_0001956]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a neurotransmitter.

positive regulation of neurotransmitter transport [GO_0051590]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0051173]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.

positive regulation of nuclear division [GO_0051785]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of nuclear division, the partitioning of the nucleus and its genetic information.

positive regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0045935]

Any cellular process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

positive regulation of organelle organization [GO_0010638]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle.

positive regulation of organic acid transport [GO_0032892]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of organic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of oviposition [GO_1901046]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of oviposition.

positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion [GO_0090277]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the regulated release of a peptide hormone from secretory granules.

positive regulation of peptide secretion [GO_0002793]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of peptide secretion.

positive regulation of phosphate metabolic process [GO_0045937]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphates.

positive regulation of phosphorus metabolic process [GO_0010562]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.

positive regulation of phosphorylation [GO_0042327]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of addition of phosphate groups to a molecule.

positive regulation of post-embryonic development [GO_0048582]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of post-embryonic development. Post-embryonic development is defined as the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the organism over time, from the completion of embryonic development to the mature structure.

positive regulation of protein binding [GO_0032092]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.

positive regulation of protein metabolic process [GO_0051247]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein.

positive regulation of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal [GO_1903322]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal.

positive regulation of protein modification process [GO_0031401]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the covalent alteration of one or more amino acid residues within a protein.

positive regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO_0031398]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of ubiquitin groups to a protein.

positive regulation of receptor binding [GO_1900122]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a protein or other molecule binding to a receptor.

positive regulation of reproductive process [GO_2000243]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of reproductive process.

positive regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange [GO_1903942]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of respiratory gaseous exchange.

positive regulation of response to alcohol [GO_1901421]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of response to alcohol.

positive regulation of response to calcium ion [GO_1905947]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of response to calcium ion.

positive regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_2001022]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of response to DNA damage stimulus.

positive regulation of response to drug [GO_2001025]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of response to drug.

positive regulation of response to external stimulus [GO_0032103]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of a response to an external stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

positive regulation of response to extracellular stimulus [GO_0032106]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of a response to an extracellular stimulus.

positive regulation of response to nutrient levels [GO_0032109]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a response to nutrient levels.

positive regulation of response to oxidative stress [GO_1902884]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of response to oxidative stress.

positive regulation of response to stimulus [GO_0048584]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of a response to a stimulus. Response to stimulus is a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

positive regulation of response to wounding [GO_1903036]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of response to wounding.

positive regulation of saliva secretion [GO_0046878]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of saliva.

positive regulation of secretion [GO_0051047]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of a substance from a cell or a tissue.

positive regulation of secretion by cell [GO_1903532]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of secretion by cell.

positive regulation of sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_1904662]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of bitter taste.

positive regulation of sensory perception of pain [GO_1904058]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of pain.

positive regulation of sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_1904658]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of sweet taste.

positive regulation of serotonin secretion [GO_0014064]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of serotonin.

positive regulation of signal transduction [GO_0009967]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction.

positive regulation of signaling [GO_0023056]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling process.

positive regulation of signaling receptor activity [GO_2000273]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signaling receptor activity.

positive regulation of synaptic transmission [GO_0050806]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse.

positive regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic [GO_0032224]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cholinergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

positive regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic [GO_0032226]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of dopaminergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter dopamine.

positive regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic [GO_0032230]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of GABAergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic [GO_0051968]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glutamate.

positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic [GO_0060094]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.

positive regulation of transferase activity [GO_0051347]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transferase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from a donor compound to an acceptor. This term is useful for grouping, but is too general for manual annotation. Please use a child term instead.

positive regulation of transmembrane transport [GO_0034764]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a solute from one side of a membrane to the other.

positive regulation of transport [GO_0051050]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of turning behavior involved in mating [GO_0061095]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of turning behavior involved in mating. Turning behavior is the sharp ventral turn performed by the male as he approaches either the hermaphrodite head or tail, whilst trying to locate his partner’s vulva. Turning occurs via a sharp ventral coil of the male’s tail.

positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity [GO_0051443]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of ubiquitin transferase activity.

positive regulation of wound healing [GO_0090303]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.

post-embryonic development [GO_0009791]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the organism over time, from the completion of embryonic development to the mature structure. See embryonic development.

postsynapse [GO_0098794]

The part of a synapse that is part of the post-synaptic cell.

postsynaptic membrane [GO_0045211]

A specialized area of membrane facing the presynaptic membrane on the tip of the nerve ending and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft). Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane.

postsynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0099170]

Any process, acting in the postsynapse that results in modulation of chemical synaptic transmission.

presynapse [GO_0098793]

The part of a synapse that is part of the presynaptic cell.

presynaptic membrane [GO_0042734]

A specialized area of membrane of the axon terminal that faces the plasma membrane of the neuron or muscle fiber with which the axon terminal establishes a synaptic junction; many synaptic junctions exhibit structural presynaptic characteristics, such as conical, electron-dense internal protrusions, that distinguish it from the remainder of the axon plasma membrane.

presynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0099171]

Any process, acting in the presynapse that results in modulation of chemical synaptic transmission.

presynaptic process involved in chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0099531]

The pathway leading to secretion of a neurotransmitter from the presynapse as part of synaptic transmission.

primary amine secretion [GO_0061531]

The regulated release of a primary amine by a cell.

primary amine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061532]

The regulated release of a primary amine by a cell, in which the primary amine acts as a neurotransmitter.

primary metabolic process [GO_0044238]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving those compounds which are formed as a part of the normal anabolic and catabolic processes. These processes take place in most, if not all, cells of the organism.

proboscis extension reflex [GO_0007637]

The extension, through direct muscle actions, of the proboscis (the trunk-like extension of the mouthparts on the adult external head) in response to a nutritional stimulus.

proprioception [GO_0019230]

The series of events by which an organism senses the position, location, orientation, and movement of the body and its parts. Proprioception is mediated by proprioceptors, sensory nerve terminals found in muscles, tendons, and joint capsules, which give information concerning movements and position of the body. The receptors in the labyrinth are sometimes also considered proprioceptors.

proprioception involved in equilibrioception [GO_0051355]

The series of events contributing to equilibrioception by which an organism senses the position, location, orientation, and movement of the body and its parts. Proprioception plays an important role in the ability of an organism to perceive its orientation with respect to gravity.

protein binding [GO_0005515]

Binding to a protein.

protein metabolic process [GO_0019538]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein. Includes protein modification.

protein modification by small protein conjugation [GO_0032446]

A protein modification process in which one or more groups of a small protein, such as ubiquitin or a ubiquitin-like protein, are covalently attached to a target protein.

protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal [GO_0070647]

A protein modification process in which one or more groups of a small protein, such as ubiquitin or a ubiquitin-like protein, are covalently attached to or removed from a target protein.

protein modification process [GO_0036211]

The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications). Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).

protein ubiquitination [GO_0016567]

The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.

receptor ligand activity [GO_0048018]

The activity of a gene product that interacts with a receptor to effect a change in the activity of the receptor. Ligands may be produced by the same, or different, cell that expresses the receptor. Ligands may diffuse extracellularly from their point of origin to the receiving cell, or remain attached to an adjacent cell surface (e.g. Notch ligands).

reflex [GO_0060004]

An automatic response to a stimulus beginning with a nerve impulse from a receptor and ending with the action of an effector such as a gland or a muscle. Signaling never reaches a level of consciousness.

regeneration [GO_0031099]

The regrowth of a lost or destroyed body part, such as an organ or tissue. This process may occur via renewal, repair, and/or growth alone (i.e. increase in size or mass).

regionalization [GO_0003002]

The pattern specification process that results in the subdivision of an axis or axes in space to define an area or volume in which specific patterns of cell differentiation will take place or in which cells interpret a specific environment.

regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014056]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of acetylcholine.

regulation of amine transport [GO_0051952]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amines into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of amino acid transport [GO_0051955]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of anatomical structure morphogenesis [GO_0022603]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of anatomical structure morphogenesis.

regulation of animal organ morphogenesis [GO_2000027]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of animal organ morphogenesis.

regulation of anion transport [GO_0044070]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of anions, atoms or small molecules with a net negative charge into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of backward locomotion [GO_0043058]

Any process that modulates the speed, mechanical force, or rhythm of the posterior movement of an organism.

regulation of behavior [GO_0050795]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of behavior, the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli.

regulation of binding [GO_0051098]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of binding, the selective interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.

regulation of biological process [GO_0050789]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a biological process. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule.

regulation of biological quality [GO_0065008]

Any process that modulates a qualitative or quantitative trait of a biological quality. A biological quality is a measurable attribute of an organism or part of an organism, such as size, mass, shape, color, etc.

regulation of body fluid levels [GO_0050878]

Any process that modulates the levels of body fluids.

regulation of catabolic process [GO_0009894]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances.

regulation of catalytic activity [GO_0050790]

Any process that modulates the activity of an enzyme.

regulation of catecholamine secretion [GO_0050433]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of catecholamines.

regulation of cell adhesion [GO_0030155]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of attachment of a cell to another cell or to the extracellular matrix.

regulation of cell communication [GO_0010646]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication. Cell communication is the process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

regulation of cell cycle [GO_0051726]

Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.

regulation of cell cycle process [GO_0010564]

Any process that modulates a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.

regulation of cell death [GO_0010941]

Any process that modulates the rate or frequency of cell death. Cell death is the specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.

regulation of cell division [GO_0051302]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the physical partitioning and separation of a cell into daughter cells.

regulation of cell growth [GO_0001558]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.

regulation of cell migration [GO_0030334]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.

regulation of cell motility [GO_2000145]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell motility.

regulation of cellular component movement [GO_0051270]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of a cellular component.

regulation of cellular component organization [GO_0051128]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell structures, including the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.

regulation of cellular localization [GO_0060341]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a process in which a cell, a substance, or a cellular entity is transported to, or maintained in a specific location within or in the membrane of a cell.

regulation of cellular metabolic process [GO_0031323]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

regulation of cellular process [GO_0050794]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular process, any of those that are carried out at the cellular level, but are not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

regulation of cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0032268]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

regulation of cellular response to alcohol [GO_1905957]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to alcohol.

regulation of cellular response to drug [GO_2001038]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to drug.

regulation of cellular response to stress [GO_0080135]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular response to stress. Cellular response to stress is a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).

regulation of circadian rhythm [GO_0042752]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a circadian rhythm. A circadian rhythm is a biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle [GO_0042749]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the circadian sleep/wake cycle.

regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0045187]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sleep; a readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity that occurs periodically in many animals.

regulation of cytokinesis [GO_0032465]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell and its separation into two daughter cells.

regulation of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_1905787]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch.

regulation of developmental growth [GO_0048638]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of developmental growth.

regulation of developmental process [GO_0050793]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).

regulation of digestive system process [GO_0044058]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a digestive system process, a physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

regulation of DNA metabolic process [GO_0051052]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving DNA.

regulation of DNA repair [GO_0006282]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of DNA repair.

regulation of dopamine secretion [GO_0014059]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of dopamine.

regulation of eclosion [GO_0007563]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the emergence of an insect from a pupa-case or of a larva from an egg.

regulation of ectoderm development [GO_2000383]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ectoderm development.

regulation of embryonic development [GO_0045995]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.

regulation of endocrine process [GO_0044060]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of an endocrine process, a process involving the secretion of or response to endocrine hormones. An endocrine hormone is a hormone released into the circulatory system.

regulation of entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0061963]

Any process that modulates the rate or extent of the dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

regulation of epithelial tube formation [GO_1905276]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial tube formation. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

regulation of establishment of planar polarity [GO_0090175]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the establishment of planar polarity, the coordinated organization of groups of cells in a tissue, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

regulation of feeding behavior [GO_0060259]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the behavior associated with the intake of food.

regulation of female receptivity [GO_0045924]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the willingness or readiness of a female to receive male advances.

regulation of forward locomotion [GO_0043059]

Any process that modulates the speed, mechanical force, or rhythm of the anterior movement of an organism.

regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0008277]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway.

regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014052]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

regulation of gastrulation [GO_0010470]

Any process that modulates the rate or extent of gastrulation. Gastrulation is the complex and coordinated series of cellular movements that occurs at the end of cleavage during embryonic development of most animals.

regulation of glutamate secretion [GO_0014048]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of glutamate.

regulation of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1903294]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission. An example of this is Rab3gap1 in mouse (Q80UJ7) in PMID:16782817 inferred from mutant phenotype

regulation of glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1904624]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glycine secretion, neurotransmission.

regulation of grooming behavior [GO_2000821]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of grooming behavior.

regulation of growth [GO_0040008]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the growth of all or part of an organism so that it occurs at its proper speed, either globally or in a specific part of the organism’s development.

regulation of hormone levels [GO_0010817]

Any process that modulates the levels of hormone within an organism or a tissue. A hormone is any substance formed in very small amounts in one specialized organ or group of cells and carried (sometimes in the bloodstream) to another organ or group of cells in the same organism, upon which it has a specific regulatory action.

regulation of hormone secretion [GO_0046883]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a hormone from a cell.

regulation of immune response [GO_0050776]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.

regulation of immune system process [GO_0002682]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune system process.

regulation of intestinal absorption [GO_1904478]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of intestinal absorption.

regulation of intracellular signal transduction [GO_1902531]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of intracellular signal transduction.

regulation of intracellular transport [GO_0032386]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.

regulation of ion transport [GO_0043269]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of kinase activity [GO_0043549]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of kinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

regulation of ligase activity [GO_0051340]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ligase activity, the catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant breaking of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate. Ligase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 6.

regulation of lipid catabolic process [GO_0050994]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids.

regulation of lipid localization [GO_1905952]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lipid localization.

regulation of lipid metabolic process [GO_0019216]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids.

regulation of lipid storage [GO_0010883]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

regulation of localization [GO_0032879]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of any process in which a cell, a substance, or a cellular entity is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

regulation of locomotion [GO_0040012]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of locomotion of a cell or organism.

regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0090325]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of the self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

regulation of locomotor rhythm [GO_1904059]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of locomotor rhythm.

regulation of macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0060255]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

regulation of male mating behavior [GO_1902435]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of male mating behavior.

regulation of meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051445]

Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle.

regulation of meiotic nuclear division [GO_0040020]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of meiotic nuclear division, the process in which the nucleus of a diploid cell divides twice forming four haploid cells, one or more of which usually function as gametes.

regulation of mesoderm development [GO_2000380]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm development.

regulation of mesoderm formation [GO_1905902]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm formation.

regulation of metabolic process [GO_0019222]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.

regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO_0007346]

Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progress through the mitotic cell cycle.

regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0009794]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of replication and segregation of genetic material in the embryo.

regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO_0007088]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mitosis.

regulation of molecular function [GO_0065009]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a molecular function, an elemental biological activity occurring at the molecular level, such as catalysis or binding.

regulation of morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_1905330]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of morphogenesis of an epithelium. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

regulation of multicellular organismal development [GO_2000026]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of multicellular organismal development.

regulation of multicellular organismal process [GO_0051239]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a multicellular organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of a multicellular organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.

regulation of nervous system development [GO_0051960]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of nervous system development, the origin and formation of nervous tissue.

regulation of nervous system process [GO_0031644]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a neurophysiological process, an organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the nervous system.

regulation of neurotransmitter levels [GO_0001505]

Any process that modulates levels of neurotransmitter.

regulation of neurotransmitter secretion [GO_0046928]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a neurotransmitter from a cell.

regulation of neurotransmitter transport [GO_0051588]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0051171]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.

regulation of nuclear division [GO_0051783]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of nuclear division, the partitioning of the nucleus and its genetic information.

regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0019219]

Any cellular process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

regulation of olfactory learning [GO_0090328]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of olfactory learning. Olfactory learning is any process in an organism in which a relatively long-lasting adaptive behavioral change occurs in response to (repeated) exposure to an olfactory cue.

regulation of organelle organization [GO_0033043]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle.

regulation of organic acid transport [GO_0032890]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of organic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of oviposition [GO_0046662]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the deposition of eggs, either fertilized or not, upon a surface or into a medium.

regulation of peptide hormone secretion [GO_0090276]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the regulated release of a peptide hormone from secretory granules.

regulation of peptide secretion [GO_0002791]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of peptide secretion.

regulation of peptide transport [GO_0090087]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of peptides, compounds of two or more amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of phosphate metabolic process [GO_0019220]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphates.

regulation of phosphorus metabolic process [GO_0051174]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.

regulation of phosphorylation [GO_0042325]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of addition of phosphate groups into a molecule.

regulation of post-embryonic development [GO_0048580]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of post-embryonic development. Post-embryonic development is defined as the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the organism over time, from the completion of embryonic development to the mature structure.

regulation of primary metabolic process [GO_0080090]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism involving those compounds formed as a part of the normal anabolic and catabolic processes. These processes take place in most, if not all, cells of the organism.

regulation of protein binding [GO_0043393]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.

regulation of protein metabolic process [GO_0051246]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein.

regulation of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal [GO_1903320]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal.

regulation of protein modification process [GO_0031399]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the covalent alteration of one or more amino acid residues within a protein.

regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO_0031396]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of ubiquitin groups to a protein.

regulation of receptor binding [GO_1900120]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a protein or other molecule binding to a receptor.

regulation of renal system process [GO_0098801]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a system process, a multicellular organismal process carried out by the renal system.

regulation of reproductive process [GO_2000241]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of reproductive process.

regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange [GO_0043576]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the process of gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment.

regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by nervous system process [GO_0002087]

A process carried out by the nervous system that is required for the proper control of respiratory gaseous exchange. This process occurs in the respiratory center of the brain in vertebrates.

regulation of respiratory system process [GO_0044065]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a respiratory system process, an organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the respiratory system.

regulation of response to alcohol [GO_1901419]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of response to alcohol.

regulation of response to calcium ion [GO_1905945]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of response to calcium ion.

regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_2001020]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of response to DNA damage stimulus.

regulation of response to drug [GO_2001023]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of response to drug.

regulation of response to external stimulus [GO_0032101]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an external stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

regulation of response to extracellular stimulus [GO_0032104]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an extracellular stimulus.

regulation of response to nutrient levels [GO_0032107]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a response to nutrient levels.

regulation of response to osmotic stress [GO_0047484]

Any process that modulates the rate or extent of the response to osmotic stress.

regulation of response to oxidative stress [GO_1902882]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of response to oxidative stress.

regulation of response to stimulus [GO_0048583]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a response to a stimulus. Response to stimulus is a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

regulation of response to stress [GO_0080134]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a response to stress. Response to stress is a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a disturbance in organismal or cellular homeostasis, usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation). Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

regulation of response to wounding [GO_1903034]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of response to wounding.

regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway [GO_0022400]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of rhodopsin-mediated signaling.

regulation of saliva secretion [GO_0046877]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of saliva from a cell or a tissue.

regulation of secretion [GO_0051046]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of a substance from a cell or a tissue.

regulation of secretion by cell [GO_1903530]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of secretion by cell.

regulation of sensory perception [GO_0051931]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception, the series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal.

regulation of sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_1904660]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of bitter taste.

regulation of sensory perception of pain [GO_0051930]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the sensory perception of pain, the series of events required for an organism to receive a painful stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal.

regulation of sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_1904656]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of sweet taste.

regulation of serotonin secretion [GO_0014062]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of serotonin.

regulation of signal transduction [GO_0009966]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction.

regulation of signaling [GO_0023051]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling process.

regulation of signaling receptor activity [GO_0010469]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling receptor activity. Receptor activity is when a molecule combines with an extracellular or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell activity.

regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic [GO_0032222]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cholinergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic [GO_0032225]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of dopaminergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter dopamine.

regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic [GO_0032228]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of GABAergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic [GO_0051966]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glutamate.

regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic [GO_0060092]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.

regulation of system process [GO_0044057]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a system process, a multicellular organismal process carried out by any of the organs or tissues in an organ system.

regulation of trans-synaptic signaling [GO_0099177]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of trans-synaptic signaling.

regulation of transferase activity [GO_0051338]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transferase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2. This term is useful for grouping, but is too general for manual annotation. Please use a child term instead.

regulation of transmembrane transport [GO_0034762]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a solute from one side of a membrane to the other.

regulation of transport [GO_0051049]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

regulation of turning behavior involved in mating [GO_0061094]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of turning behavior involved in mating. Turning behavior is the sharp ventral turn performed by the male as he approaches either the hermaphrodite head or tail, whilst trying to locate his partner’s vulva. Turning occurs via a sharp ventral coil of the male’s tail.

regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity [GO_0051438]

Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin transferase activity.

regulation of wound healing [GO_0061041]

Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.

renal filtration [GO_0097205]

A renal system process in which fluid circulating through the body is filtered through a barrier system.

renal system process [GO_0003014]

A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the renal system. The renal system maintains fluid balance, and contributes to electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and disposal of nitrogenous waste products. In humans, the renal system comprises a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, sphincter muscle and associated blood vessels; in other species, the renal system may comprise related structures (e.g., nephrocytes and malpighian tubules in Drosophila).

reproduction [GO_0000003]

The production of new individuals that contain some portion of genetic material inherited from one or more parent organisms.

reproductive behavior [GO_0019098]

The specific behavior of an organism that is associated with reproduction.

reproductive process [GO_0022414]

A biological process that directly contributes to the process of producing new individuals by one or two organisms. The new individuals inherit some proportion of their genetic material from the parent or parents.

respiratory gaseous exchange by respiratory system [GO_0007585]

The process of gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment. In plants, microorganisms, and many small animals, air or water makes direct contact with the organism’s cells or tissue fluids, and the processes of diffusion supply the organism with dioxygen (O2) and remove carbon dioxide (CO2). In larger animals the efficiency of gaseous exchange is improved by specialized respiratory organs, such as lungs and gills, which are ventilated by breathing mechanisms.

respiratory system process [GO_0003016]

A process carried out by the organs or tissues of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is an organ system responsible for respiratory gaseous exchange.

response to abiotic stimulus [GO_0009628]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an abiotic (not derived from living organisms) stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to alcohol [GO_0097305]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alcohol stimulus.

response to alkaloid [GO_0043279]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alkaloid stimulus. Alkaloids are a large group of nitrogenous substances found in naturally in plants, many of which have extracts that are pharmacologically active.

response to antibiotic [GO_0046677]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms.

response to caffeine [GO_0031000]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a caffeine stimulus. Caffeine is an alkaloid found in numerous plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon them.

response to calcium ion [GO_0051592]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a calcium ion stimulus.

response to chemical [GO_0042221]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a chemical stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to cold [GO_0009409]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cold stimulus, a temperature stimulus below the optimal temperature for that organism.

response to diuretic [GO_0036270]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a diuretic stimulus. A diuretic is an agent that promotes the excretion of urine through its effects on kidney function. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct manual annotation of gene products. It was created to be used for cross-referencing by other ontologies. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to endogenous stimulus [GO_0009719]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus arising within the organism. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to external stimulus [GO_0009605]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an external stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to extracellular stimulus [GO_0009991]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an extracellular stimulus.

response to farnesol [GO_0097307]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a farnesol stimulus.

response to gravity [GO_0009629]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a gravitational stimulus.

response to heat [GO_0009408]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a heat stimulus, a temperature stimulus above the optimal temperature for that organism.

response to inorganic substance [GO_0010035]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an inorganic substance stimulus.

response to light stimulus [GO_0009416]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a light stimulus, electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths classified as infrared, visible or ultraviolet light.

response to lipid [GO_0033993]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipid stimulus.

response to mechanical stimulus [GO_0009612]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a mechanical stimulus.

response to metal ion [GO_0010038]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a metal ion stimulus.

response to nitrogen compound [GO_1901698]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitrogen compound stimulus.

response to nutrient [GO_0007584]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nutrient stimulus.

response to nutrient levels [GO_0031667]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus reflecting the presence, absence, or concentration of nutrients.

response to organic cyclic compound [GO_0014070]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.

response to organic substance [GO_0010033]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.

response to organonitrogen compound [GO_0010243]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organonitrogen stimulus. An organonitrogen compound is formally a compound containing at least one carbon-nitrogen bond.

response to osmotic stress [GO_0006970]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of solutes outside the organism or cell.

response to oxidative stress [GO_0006979]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.

response to oxygen-containing compound [GO_1901700]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an oxygen-containing compound stimulus.

response to pain [GO_0048265]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pain stimulus. Pain stimuli cause activation of nociceptors, peripheral receptors for pain, include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli.

response to pheromone [GO_0019236]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pheromone stimulus.

response to purine-containing compound [GO_0014074]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a purine-containing compound stimulus.

response to radiation [GO_0009314]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an electromagnetic radiation stimulus. Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation. Note that ‘radiation’ refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength.

response to starvation [GO_0042594]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a starvation stimulus, deprivation of nourishment.

response to stimulus [GO_0050896]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. The process begins with detection of the stimulus and ends with a change in state or activity or the cell or organism. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to stress [GO_0006950]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a disturbance in organismal or cellular homeostasis, usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation). Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

response to temperature stimulus [GO_0009266]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a temperature stimulus.

response to wounding [GO_0009611]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to the organism.

response to xenobiotic stimulus [GO_0009410]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a xenobiotic, a compound foreign to the organim exposed to it. It may be synthesized by another organism (like ampicilin) or it can be a synthetic chemical.

rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway [GO_0016056]

The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of excitation of rhodopsin by a photon and the events that convert the absorbed photons into a cellular response.

rhythmic behavior [GO_0007622]

The specific behavior of an organism that recur with measured regularity.

rhythmic process [GO_0048511]

Any process pertinent to the generation and maintenance of rhythms in the physiology of an organism.

saliva secretion [GO_0046541]

The regulated release of saliva from the salivary glands. In man, the saliva is a turbid and slightly viscous fluid, generally of an alkaline reaction, and is secreted by the parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual glands. In the mouth the saliva is mixed with the secretion from the buccal glands. In man and many animals, saliva is an important digestive fluid on account of the presence of the peculiar enzyme, ptyalin.

secretion [GO_0046903]

The controlled release of a substance by a cell or a tissue.

secretion by cell [GO_0032940]

The controlled release of a substance by a cell.

secretion by tissue [GO_0032941]

The controlled release of a substance by a tissue.

sensory perception [GO_0007600]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_0050913]

The series of events required to receive a bitter taste stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of chemical stimulus [GO_0007606]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory chemical stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of cold stimulus [GO_0062035]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a cold temperature stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal.

sensory perception of high humidity [GO_0098510]

The series of events required for an organism to detect high environmental humidity, convert this detection into a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of hot stimulus [GO_0062036]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a hot temperature stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal.

sensory perception of humidity [GO_0098509]

The series of events required for an organism to detect some level of humidity in its environment, convert this detection into a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process. Note, this is not classified under ‘detection of chemical stimulus’ as there are various potential mechanisms of hygroperception including detection of mechanical stimulus.

sensory perception of light stimulus [GO_0050953]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory light stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of low humidity [GO_0098511]

The series of events required for an organism to detect low environmental humidity, convert this detection into a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of mechanical stimulus [GO_0050954]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory mechanical stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of pain [GO_0019233]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a painful stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Pain is medically defined as the physical sensation of discomfort or distress caused by injury or illness, so can hence be described as a harmful stimulus which signals current (or impending) tissue damage. Pain may come from extremes of temperature, mechanical damage, electricity or from noxious chemical substances. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of salty taste [GO_0050914]

The series of events required to receive a salty taste stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of smell [GO_0007608]

The series of events required for an organism to receive an olfactory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Olfaction involves the detection of chemical composition of an organism’s ambient medium by chemoreceptors. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of sound [GO_0007605]

The series of events required for an organism to receive an auditory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Sonic stimuli are detected in the form of vibrations and are processed to form a sound.

sensory perception of sour taste [GO_0050915]

The series of events required to receive a sour taste stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_0050916]

The series of events required to receive a sweet taste stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of taste [GO_0050909]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a gustatory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Gustation involves the direct detection of chemical composition, usually through contact with chemoreceptor cells. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of temperature stimulus [GO_0050951]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory temperature stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of touch [GO_0050975]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a touch stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process. The perception of touch in animals is mediated by mechanoreceptors in the skin and mucous membranes and is the sense by which contact with objects gives evidence as to certain of their qualities. Different types of touch can be perceived (for example, light, coarse, pressure and tickling) and the stimulus may be external or internal (e.g. the feeling of a full stomach).

sensory perception of umami taste [GO_0050917]

The series of events required to receive an umami taste stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Umami taste is the savory taste of meats and other foods that are rich in glutamates. This is a neurological process.

sensory perception of wind [GO_0071063]

The series of events required for an organism to receive sensory mechanical stimulus resulting from air flow, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal.

serotonin secretion [GO_0001820]

The regulated release of serotonin by a cell. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system, enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract and some immune system cells.

serotonin secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0060096]

The regulated release of serotonin by a cell, in which released serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter.

serotonin transport [GO_0006837]

The directed movement of serotonin into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a monoamine neurotransmitter occurring in the peripheral and central nervous systems.

sex determination [GO_0007530]

Any process that establishes and transmits the specification of sexual status of an individual organism.

sexual reproduction [GO_0019953]

A reproduction process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two gametes, which may come from two organisms or from a single organism, in the case of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, e.g. C. elegans, or self-fertilization in plants. It occurs both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: in multicellular eukaryotic organisms, an individual is created anew; in prokaryotes, the initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) originating from two gametes join up so that homologous sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. After the new recombinant chromosome is formed, it is passed on to progeny. Sexual reproduction may be seen as the regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e.g. higher plants, many algae and Fungi); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e.g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.

short-term memory [GO_0007614]

The memory process that deals with the storage, retrieval and modification of information received a short time (up to about 30 minutes) ago. This type of memory is typically dependent on direct, transient effects of second messenger activation.

signal release [GO_0023061]

The process in which a signal is secreted or discharged into the extracellular medium from a cellular source.

signal release from synapse [GO_0099643]

Any signal release from a synapse.

signal transduction [GO_0007165]

The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell. Note that signal transduction is defined broadly to include a ligand interacting with a receptor, downstream signaling steps and a response being triggered. A change in form of the signal in every step is not necessary. Note that in many cases the end of this process is regulation of the initiation of transcription. Note that specific transcription factors may be annotated to this term, but core/general transcription machinery such as RNA polymerase should not.

signaling [GO_0023052]

The entirety of a process in which information is transmitted within a biological system. This process begins with an active signal and ends when a cellular response has been triggered. Note that a signal is any variable property or parameter that serves to convey information, and may be a physical entity such as a gene product or small molecule, a photon, or a change in state such as movement or voltage change.

signaling receptor activator activity [GO_0030546]

The function of interacting (directly or indirectly) with receptors such that the proportion of receptors in the active form is increased.

signaling receptor activity [GO_0038023]

Receiving a signal and transmitting it in the cell to initiate a change in cell activity. A signal is a physical entity or change in state that is used to transfer information in order to trigger a response.

signaling receptor binding [GO_0005102]

Binding to one or more specific sites on a receptor molecule, a macromolecule that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function. Where appropriate, also consider annotating to ‘receptor agonist activity ; GO:0048018’.

signaling receptor inhibitor activity [GO_0030547]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a signaling receptor.

signaling receptor regulator activity [GO_0030545]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a receptor.

sleep [GO_0030431]

Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a periodic, readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity. Usually accompanied by physical relaxation, the onset of sleep in humans and other mammals is marked by a change in the electrical activity of the brain.

somato-dendritic dopamine secretion [GO_0099123]

The regulated release of dopamine from the somatodendritic compartment (cell body or dendrites) of a neuron.

somatodendritic compartment [GO_0036477]

The region of a neuron that includes the cell body (cell soma) and dendrite(s), but excludes the axon.

sperm competition [GO_0046692]

Any process that contributes to the success of sperm fertilization in multiply-mated females.

sperm storage [GO_0046693]

The retention of sperm by a female following mating.

Sphingomyelinase is activated by the NGF:p75NTR complex [GO_0004888]

Combining with an extracellular or intracellular signal and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity or state as part of signal transduction. This term includes intracellular membrane receptors, e.g. IP3 triggered release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores.

synapse [GO_0045202]

The junction between an axon of one neuron and a dendrite of another neuron, a muscle fiber or a glial cell. As the axon approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic terminal bouton, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the terminal bouton is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the postsynaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic terminal bouton secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane.

synaptic membrane [GO_0097060]

A specialized area of membrane on either the presynaptic or the postsynaptic side of a synapse, the junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron or muscle fiber or glial cell.

synaptic signaling [GO_0099536]

Cell-cell signaling to, from or within a synapse.

synaptic transmission, cholinergic [GO_0007271]

The vesicular release of acetylcholine from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of dopamine receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

synaptic transmission, dopaminergic [GO_0001963]

The vesicular release of dopamine. from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of dopamine receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

synaptic transmission, GABAergic [GO_0051932]

The vesicular release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of GABA receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

synaptic transmission, glutamatergic [GO_0035249]

The vesicular release of glutamate from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of glutamate receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

synaptic transmission, glycinergic [GO_0060012]

The vesicular release of glycine from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of glycine receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

system development [GO_0048731]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organismal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a given biological process.

system process [GO_0003008]

A multicellular organismal process carried out by any of the organs or tissues in an organ system. An organ system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a biological objective.

SYVN1 ubiquitinates Hh C-terminal fragments [GO_0004842]

Catalysis of the transfer of ubiquitin from one protein to another via the reaction X-Ub + Y –> Y-Ub + X, where both X-Ub and Y-Ub are covalent linkages.

taxis [GO_0042330]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to an external stimulus.

thermoception [GO_0050955]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a temperature stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Thermoception in larger animals is mainly done in the skin; mammals have at least two types of sensor, for detecting heat (temperatures above body temperature) and cold (temperatures below body temperature).

thermosensory behavior [GO_0040040]

Behavior that is dependent upon the sensation of temperature.

thermotaxis [GO_0043052]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to a temperature gradient. Movement may be towards either a higher or lower temperature.

tissue development [GO_0009888]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

tissue morphogenesis [GO_0048729]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tissue are generated and organized.

tissue regeneration [GO_0042246]

The regrowth of lost or destroyed tissues.

trans-synaptic signaling [GO_0099537]

Cell-cell signaling in either direction across the synaptic cleft.

trans-synaptic signaling, modulating synaptic transmission [GO_0099550]

Cell-cell signaling between presynapse and postsynapse, across the synaptic cleft, that modulates the synaptic transmission properties of the synapse. Note that this term was created for the SynGO project, and will be obsoleted when the SynGO annotations are made in Noctua.

transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups [GO_0016772]

Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphorus-containing group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor). Note that this term encompasses all kinase activities, as well as activities that transfer other phosphorus-containing groups such as diphosphate or nucleotides.

transmembrane transport [GO_0055085]

The process in which a solute is transported across a lipid bilayer, from one side of a membrane to the other. Transmembrane transport is the transport of a solute across a lipid bilayer. Note that transport through the nuclear pore complex is not transmembrane because the nuclear membrane is a double membrane and is not traversed. For transport through the nuclear pore, consider instead the term ‘nucleocytoplasmic transport ; GO:0006913’ and its children. Note also that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

transport [GO_0006810]

The directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) or cellular components (such as complexes and organelles) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, or within a multicellular organism by means of some agent such as a transporter, pore or motor protein. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. It should be possible to make a more specific annotation to one of the children of this term, for e.g. to transmembrane transport, to microtubule-based transport or to vesicle-mediated transport.

tube development [GO_0035295]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a tube over time, from its initial formation to a mature structure. Epithelial and endothelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues including lung and trachea, kidney, the mammary gland, the vascular system and the gastrointestinal and urinary-genital tracts.

tube formation [GO_0035148]

Creation of the central hole of a tube in an anatomical structure through which gases and/or liquids flow.

tube morphogenesis [GO_0035239]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tube are generated and organized. Epithelial and endothelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues, with tube shape and organization varying from the single-celled excretory organ in Caenorhabditis elegans to the branching trees of the mammalian kidney and insect tracheal system.

turning behavior [GO_0035178]

Fine-tuning the spatial position of an organism in response to variability in their environment. For example, reorientation of an organism in the direction of a food source.

turning behavior involved in mating [GO_0034607]

The sharp ventral turn performed by the male as he approaches either the hermaphrodite head or tail, whilst trying to locate his partner’s vulva. Turning occurs via a sharp ventral coil of the male’s tail.

tyramine secretion [GO_0061545]

The regulated release of a tyramine by a cell.

tyramine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061546]

The regulated release of a tyramine by a cell in which the tyramine acts as a neurotransmitter.

ubiquitin-like protein transferase activity [GO_0019787]

Catalysis of the transfer of a ubiquitin-like from one protein to another via the reaction X-ULP + Y –> Y-ULP + X, where both X-ULP and Y-ULP are covalent linkages. ULP represents a ubiquitin-like protein.

ubiquitin-protein transferase regulator activity [GO_0055106]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a ubiquitin-protein transferase, an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine in a substrate protein.

vacuole [GO_0005773]

A closed structure, found only in eukaryotic cells, that is completely surrounded by unit membrane and contains liquid material. Cells contain one or several vacuoles, that may have different functions from each other. Vacuoles have a diverse array of functions. They can act as a storage organelle for nutrients or waste products, as a degradative compartment, as a cost-effective way of increasing cell size, and as a homeostatic regulator controlling both turgor pressure and pH of the cytosol.

visual behavior [GO_0007632]

The behavior of an organism in response to a visual stimulus.

visual perception [GO_0007601]

The series of events required for an organism to receive a visual stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Visual stimuli are detected in the form of photons and are processed to form an image.

visual perception involved in equilibrioception [GO_0051356]

The series of events during equilibrioception required for an organism to receive a visual stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Visual input plays an important role in the ability of an organism to perceive its orientation with respect to gravity.

walking behavior [GO_0090659]

The behavior of an organism relating to the progression of that organism along the ground by the process of lifting and setting down each leg.

wound healing [GO_0042060]

The series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.


Last modified January 5, 2022: adding IAO (3e12bef)