Gene Ontology (GO)

The Gene Ontology (GO) provides a framework and set of concepts for describing the functions of gene products from all organisms.

Open in the Ontology Lookup Service (OLS)


((1,6)-alpha-glucosyl)poly((1,4)-alpha-glucosyl)glycogenin => poly{(1,4)-alpha-glucosyl} glycogenin + alpha-D-glucose [GO_0004135]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of (1->6)-alpha-D-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen phosphorylase limit dextrin. Limit dextrin is the highly branched core that remains after exhaustive treatment of glycogen with glycogen phosphorylase. It is formed because these enzymes cannot hydrolyze the (1->6) glycosidic linkages present.

(2'-deoxy)adenosine + ATP => (d)AMP + ADP (ADK) [GO_0004001]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + adenosine = ADP + AMP.

(d)ADP + ADP <=> (d)AMP + ATP (AK1) [GO_0004017]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + AMP = 2 ADP.

(d)CDP or UDP + ADP <=> (d)CMP or UMP + ATP (CMPK1) [GO_0050145]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + nucleoside monophosphate = ADP + nucleoside diphosphate.

(d)GMP + ATP <=> (d)GDP + ADP (GUK1) [GO_0004385]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + GMP = ADP + GDP.

(d)NTP + ADP <=> (d)NDP + ATP (NME1,2,3) [GO_0004550]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + nucleoside diphosphate = ADP + nucleoside triphosphate.

(S)-2-hydroxy-acid oxidase activity [GO_0003973]

Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2-hydroxy-acid + O2 = 2-oxo acid + hydrogen peroxide.

1,2-diacyl-glycerol + acyl-CoA => triacylglycerol + CoASH [DGAT2] [GO_0004144]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + 1,2-diacylglycerol = CoA + triacylglycerol.

1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme activity [GO_0003844]

Catalysis of the transfer of a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain to a primary hydroxyl group in a similar glucan chain.

1,4-alpha-oligoglucan phosphorylase activity [GO_0004645]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl(n) + phosphate = 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The name should be qualified in each instance by adding the name of the natural substrate, e.g. maltodextrin phosphorylase, starch phosphorylase, glycogen phosphorylase.

1-acyl LPE is acylated to PE by LPEAT [GO_0003841]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate = CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate.

1-acyl LPE is hydrolyzed to GPETA by PLA2G4C [GO_0004622]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.

1-acylglycerophosphocholine O-acyltransferase activity [GO_0047184]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acyl-CoA = phosphatidylcholine + CoA.

1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activator activity [GO_0098744]

Binds to and increases the activity of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

1-phosphatidylinositol binding [GO_0005545]

Binding to a phosphatidylinositol, a glycophospholipid with its sn-glycerol 3-phosphate residue is esterified to the 1-hydroxyl group of 1D-myo-inositol.

1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase regulator activity [GO_0046935]

Modulates the activity of the enzyme 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity. See also the molecular function term ‘1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity ; GO:0016303’.

1-phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase activity [GO_0016309]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 5-phosphate = ADP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

1-PP-IP5 is phosphorylated to 1,5-(PP)2-IP4 by IP6K1/3 in the cytosol [GO_0000829]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + diphospho-1D-myo-inositol-pentakisphosphate = ADP + bis(diphospho)-1D-myo-inositol-tetrakisphosphate. The isomeric configurations of the diphospho-1D-myo-inositol-pentakisphosphate (PP-IP5) and bis(diphospho)-1D-myo-inositol-tetrakisphosphate (bis-PP-IP4) are unknown.

1/3 PP-IP5 is dephosphorylated to IP6 by NUDT(1) in the cytosol [GO_0052842]

Catalysis of the reaction: inositol diphosphate pentakisphosphate + H2O = inositol hexakisphosphate + phosphate.

14-3-3 protein binding [GO_0071889]

Binding to a 14-3-3 protein. A 14-3-3 protein is any of a large family of approximately 30kDa acidic proteins which exist primarily as homo- and heterodimers within all eukaryotic cells, and have been implicated in the modulation of distinct biological processes by binding to specific phosphorylated sites on diverse target proteins, thereby forcing conformational changes or influencing interactions between their targets and other molecules. Each 14-3-3 protein sequence can be roughly divided into three sections: a divergent amino terminus, the conserved core region and a divergent carboxy-terminus. The conserved middle core region of the 14-3-3s encodes an amphipathic groove that forms the main functional domain, a cradle for interacting with client proteins.

17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity [GO_0044594]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 17-beta-hydroxysteroid + NAD+ = a 17-oxosteroid + NADH + H+.

17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity [GO_0072582]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 17-beta-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ = a 17-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+.

17-beta-ketosteroid reductase activity [GO_0072555]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 17-beta-ketosteroid + NADPH + H+ = a 17-beta-hydroxysteroid + NADP+.

2 H2O2 => O2 + 2 H2O [GO_0004096]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2 hydrogen peroxide = O2 + 2 H2O.

2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding [GO_0051537]

Binding to a 2 iron, 2 sulfur (2Fe-2S) cluster; this cluster consists of two iron atoms, with two inorganic sulfur atoms found between the irons and acting as bridging ligands.

2-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)histidine synthase activity [GO_0090560]

Catalysis of the reaction S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-histidine-[translation elongation factor 2] = S-methyl-5-thioadenosine + 2-[(3S)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl]-L-histidine-[translation elongation factor 2].

2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoyl-CoA lyase activity [GO_0106360]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoyl-CoA = 2-methylpentadecanal + formyl-CoA.

2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase activity [GO_0106359]

Catalysis of the reaction: A 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA = formyl-CoA + a propanol.

2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA => pristanal + formyl-CoA [GO_0016830]

Catalysis of the cleavage of C-C bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation, or conversely adding a group to a double bond.

2-iminobutanoate deaminase activity [GO_0120242]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-iminobutanoate + H2O = 2-oxobutanoate + NH4(+).

2-iminobutanoate/2-iminopropanoate deaminase [GO_0120241]

Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of imine intermediates formed by several types of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent dehydratases, such as EC 4.3.1.19 and EC 4.3.1.17. This enzyme, which has been found in all species and tissues examined, catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of imine intermediates formed by several types of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent dehydratases, such as EC 4.3.1.19 and EC 4.3.1.17. The reactions, which can occur spontaneously, are accelerated to minimize the cellular damage that could be caused by these reactive intermediates (from EC:3.5.99.10).

2-MAG and DAG are transacylated to TAG by PNPLA2/3 [GO_0016411]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group to an oxygen atom on the acylglycerol molecule.

2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+ => (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + NADP+ [mutant IDH1] [GO_0051990]

Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acceptor = 2-oxoglutarate + reduced acceptor.

2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity [GO_0016706]

Catalysis of the reaction: A + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = B + succinate + CO2. This is an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which hydrogen or electrons are transferred from 2-oxoglutarate and one other donor, and one atom of oxygen is incorporated into each donor.

2-Phospho-D-glycerate <=> 3-Phospho-D-glycerate [GO_0004619]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-phospho-D-glycerate = 3-phospho-D-glycerate.

2-Phospho-D-glycerate <=> Phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O [GO_0004634]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O.

2xENPP1 hydrolyzes FAD to FMN [GO_0004551]

Catalysis of the reaction: a dinucleotide + H2O = 2 mononucleotides.

2xPDKX:2xZn2+ phosphorylates PDX [GO_0008478]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + pyridoxal = ADP + pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

2xPNPO:2xFMN oxidizes PXAP to PXLP [GO_0004733]

Catalysis of the reaction: pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + H2O + O2 = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + NH3 + hydrogen peroxide.

2xPPCS ligates PPanK with Cys [GO_0004632]

Catalysis of the reaction: CTP + (R)-4'-phosphopantothenate + L-cysteine = CMP + diphosphate + (R)-4'-phosphopantothenoyl-L-cysteine. Cysteine can be replaced by some of its derivatives.

2xTRAP hydrolyzes FMN to RIB [GO_0003993]

Catalysis of the reaction: an orthophosphoric monoester + H2O = an alcohol + phosphate, with an acid pH optimum.

3 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding [GO_0051538]

Binding to a 3 iron, 4 sulfur (3Fe-4S) cluster; this cluster consists of three iron atoms, with the inorganic sulfur atoms found between the irons and acting as bridging ligands. It is essentially a 4Fe-4S cluster with one iron missing.

3',2'-cyclic GMP-AMP synthase activity [GO_0140700]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + GTP = 2 diphosphate + cyclic G-P(3'-5')A-P(2'-5') (cyclic 3',2' GAMP).

3'-5' DNA/RNA helicase activity [GO_0033679]

Unwinding of a DNA/RNA duplex in the 3' to 5' direction, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

3'-5' exonuclease activity [GO_0008408]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids by removing nucleotide residues from the 3' end.

3'-5' RNA helicase activity [GO_0034458]

Unwinding of an RNA helix in the 3' to 5' direction, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

3-dehydrosphinganine reductase activity [GO_0047560]

Catalysis of the reaction: NADP+ + sphinganine = 3-dehydrosphinganine + H+ + NADPH.

3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity [GO_0018812]

Catalysis of the reaction: alkene-CoA + H2O = alcohol-CoA. Substrates are crotonoyl-CoA (producing 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA) and 2,3-didehydro-pimeloyl-CoA (producing 3-hydroxypimeloyl-CoA).

3-ketohexacosanoyl-CoA + CoASH => tetracosanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA [GO_0003988]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA.

3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring) activity [GO_0003863]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + lipoamide = S-(2-methylpropanoyl)dihydrolipoamide + CO2.

3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity [GO_0004315]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] = 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + [acyl-carrier protein].

4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding [GO_0051539]

Binding to a 4 iron, 4 sulfur (4Fe-4S) cluster; this cluster consists of four iron atoms, with the inorganic sulfur atoms found between the irons and acting as bridging ligands.

4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase activity [GO_0003868]

Catalysis of the reaction: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + O2 = homogentisate + CO2.

4-methylcholesta-8(9),24-dien-3-one is reduced to 4-methylcholesta-8(9),24-dien-3beta-ol [GO_0000253]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 3-beta-hydroxyl sterol + NADP+ = a 3-keto sterol + NADPH + H+. Note that zymosterol is cholesta-8,24-dien-3-ol.

4-methylcholesta-8(9),24-dien-3beta-ol is oxidized to 4-carboxycholesta-8(9),24-dien-3beta-ol [GO_0000254]

Catalysis of the reaction: 4,4-dimethyl-5-alpha-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-beta-ol + 6 Fe(II)-[cytochrome b5] + 5 H+ + 3 O2 = 4-beta-hydroxymethyl-4-alpha-methyl-5-alpha-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-beta-ol + 6 Fe(III)-[cytochrome b5] + 4 H2O. Note that zymosterol is cholesta-8,24-dien-3-ol.

4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin => q-dihydrobiopterin + H2O [GO_0008124]

Catalysis of the reaction: (6R)-6-(L-erythro-1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4a-hydroxypterin = (6R)-6-(L-erythro-1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-7,8-dihydro-6H-pterin + H2O.

4xPALM-C-p-2S-ABCA1 tetramer transports PL from transport vesicle membrane to plasma membrane [GO_0005548]

Enables the directed movement of phospholipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells. Phospholipids are a class of lipids containing phosphoric acid as a mono- or diester.

5'-3' exodeoxyribonuclease activity [GO_0035312]

Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' terminus of a DNA molecule.

5'-3' exoribonuclease activity [GO_0004534]

Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' terminus of an RNA molecule.

5'-3' RNA polymerase activity [GO_0034062]

Catalysis of the reaction: nucleoside triphosphate + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1); the synthesis of RNA from ribonucleotide triphosphates in the presence of a nucleic acid template, via extension of the 3'-end.

5'-deoxynucleotidase activity [GO_0002953]

Catalysis of the reaction:a 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate + H20=a 2'-deoxyribonucleoside + phosphate.

5'-nucleotidase activity [GO_0008253]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 5'-ribonucleotide + H2O = a ribonucleoside + phosphate.

5,6-dihydrothymine + H2O => beta-ureidoisobutyrate [GO_0004157]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5,6-dihydrouracil + H2O = 3-ureidopropionate.

5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylase activity [GO_0036467]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan + H+ = CO2 + serotonin.

5-Phosphoribosylamine + Glycine + ATP => GAR + ADP + Pi [GO_0004637]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5-phospho-D-ribosylamine + ATP + glycine = N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + ADP + 2 H+ + phosphate.

5beta-cholestan-7alpha,27-diol-3-one is reduced to 5beta-cholestan-3alpha,7alpha,27-triol [GO_0004033]

Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NADP+ = an aldehyde or a ketone + NADPH + H+.

5S rRNA binding [GO_0008097]

Binding to a 5S ribosomal RNA, the smallest RNA constituent of a ribosome.

5S rRNA primary transcript binding [GO_0008098]

Binding to an unprocessed 5S ribosomal RNA transcript.

6-phosphofructokinase activity [GO_0003872]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + D-fructose-6-phosphate = ADP + D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

7-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity [GO_0047022]

Catalysis of the reaction: NADP+ + a 7-beta-hydroxysteroid = NADPH + H+ + a 7-oxosteroid.

7S RNA binding [GO_0008312]

Binding to a 7S RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle (SRP).

[heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 1 activity [GO_0008467]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfate. The [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfate has a substrate consensus sequence of Glc(N2S>NAc)+/-6S GlcA GlcN2S*+/-6S GlcA>IdoA+/-2S Glc(N2S/NAc)+/-6S.

[heparan sulfate]-glucosamine N-sulfotransferase activity [GO_0015016]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + [heparan sulfate]-N-sulfoglucosamine. Note that this activity includes EC:2.8.2.12 (deleted from EC).

A-type (transient outward) potassium channel activity [GO_0005250]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a potassium ion by an outwardly-rectifying voltage-gated channel that produces a transient outward current upon a step change in membrane potential.

abacavir monophosphate + H2O => carbovir monophosphate + cyclopropylamine [GO_0004000]

Catalysis of the reaction: adenosine + H2O = inosine + NH3.

ABC-type fatty-acyl-CoA transporter activity [GO_0015607]

Catalysis of the reaction ATP + H2O + fatty acyl CoA(Side 1) <=> ADP + phosphate + fatty acyl CoA(Side 2). A fatty acyl CoA group is any acyl group derived from a fatty acid with a coenzyme A group attached to it.

ABC-type polyamine transporter activity [GO_0015417]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + polyamine(out) = ADP + phosphate + polyamine(in).

ABC-type transporter activity [GO_0140359]

Primary active transporter characterized by two nucleotide-binding domains and two transmembrane domains. Uses the energy generated from ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport of a substance across a membrane.

ABC-type xenobiotic transporter activity [GO_0008559]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + xenobiotic(in) = ADP + phosphate + xenobiotic(out).

ABC7, mABC1 and mABC2 mediate heme transport [GO_0015439]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + heme(in) = ADP + phosphate + heme(out).

ABCC4 accumulation of dense granule contents [GO_0015662]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, to directly drive the transport of ions across a membrane. The reaction is characterized by the transient formation of a high-energy aspartyl-phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate.

AcCho is hydrolyzed to Cho and acetate by ACHE [GO_0003990]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetylcholine + H2O = choline + acetate.

ACE hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-9) to Angiotensin-(1-7) [GO_0070573]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a dipeptide by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.

ACE2 hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-8) to Angiotensin-(1-7) [GO_0004181]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a single C-terminal amino acid residue from a polypeptide chain by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.

acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) activity [GO_0008774]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetaldehyde + CoA + NAD+ = acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+.

acetate CoA-transferase activity [GO_0008775]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA.

acetate ester transmembrane transporter activity [GO_1901375]

Enables the transfer of an acetate ester from one side of a membrane to the other.

acetate ester transport [GO_1901374]

The directed movement of an acetate ester into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

acetate-CoA ligase activity [GO_0003987]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.

acetoacetyl-CoA reductase activity [GO_0018454]

Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA + NADP+ = 3-oxoacyl-CoA + NADPH + H+.

acetoacetyl-CoA+acetyl-CoA => HMG-CoA + CoASH [GO_0004421]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O = (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + CoA + H+. Note that this function was formerly EC:4.1.3.5.

acetyl-CoA + 7 malonyl-CoA + 14 NADHP + 14 H+ => palmitate + 7 CO2 + 14 NADP+ + 8 CoASH + 6 H2O [GO_0004312]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 2n H+ = long-chain fatty acid + n+1 CoA + n CO2 + 2n NADP+.

Acetyl-CoA + H2O + Oxaloacetate => Citrate + CoA [GO_0004108]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA, where the acetyl group is added to the si-face of oxaloacetate; acetyl-CoA thus provides the two carbon atoms of the pro-S carboxymethyl group. Note that this function was formerly EC:4.1.3.7.

acetyl-CoA binding [GO_1905502]

Binding to acetyl-CoA, an acyl-CoA having acetyl as its S-acetyl component.

acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity [GO_0003985]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA.

acetylation-dependent protein binding [GO_0140033]

Binding to a protein upon acetylation of the target protein. This term should only be used when the binding is shown to require acetylation of the target protein: the interaction needs to be tested with and without the PTM. The binding does not need to be at the site of acetylation. It may be that the acetylation causes a conformational change that allows binding of the protein to another region; this type of acetylation-dependent protein binding is valid for annotation to this term.

acetylcholine binding [GO_0042166]

Binding to acetylcholine, an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline that functions as a neurotransmitter, released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions.

acetylcholine receptor activator activity [GO_0030549]

Interacting (directly or indirectly) with acetylcholine receptors such that the proportion of receptors in the active form is increased.

acetylcholine receptor activity [GO_0015464]

Combining with an acetylcholine receptor ligand and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity. For nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that act as ion channels, instead use ‘acetylcholine-gated cation channel activity ; GO:0022848’.

acetylcholine receptor inhibitor activity [GO_0030550]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of an acetylcholine receptor.

acetylcholine receptor regulator activity [GO_0030548]

Interacting (directly or indirectly) with acetylcholine receptors such that the proportion of receptors in the active form is changed.

acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway [GO_0095500]

The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an acetylcholine receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.

acetylcholine secretion [GO_0061526]

The regulated release of acetylcholine by a cell.

acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014055]

The regulated release of acetylcholine by a cell. The acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter that acts in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS).

acetylcholine transport [GO_0015870]

The directed movement of acetylcholine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Acetylcholine is an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline and functions as a neurotransmitter, released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions.

acetylcholine-gated cation-selective channel activity [GO_0022848]

Selectively enables the transmembrane transfer of a cation by a channel that opens upon binding acetylcholine.

acetylesterase activity [GO_0008126]

Catalysis of the reaction: an acetic ester + H2O = an alcohol + acetate.

acetylpyruvate hydrolase activity [GO_0018773]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetylpyruvate + H2O = acetate + H+ + pyruvate.

acetyltransferase activator activity [GO_0010698]

Binds to and increases the activity of an acetyltransferase, an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group to an acceptor molecule.

acid secretion [GO_0046717]

The controlled release of acid by a cell or a tissue.

acid sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activity [GO_0061750]

Catalysis of the reaction: H2O + sphingomyelin = ceramide + choline phosphate + H+ in an acidic environment.

acid-amino acid ligase activity [GO_0016881]

Catalysis of the ligation of an acid to an amino acid via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

acid-ammonia (or amide) ligase activity [GO_0016880]

Catalysis of the ligation of an acid to ammonia (NH3) or an amide via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

acid-sensing ion channel activity [GO_0044736]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a sodium ion by a neuronal, voltage-insensitive channel that opens when an extracellular proton has been bound by the channel complex.

acid-thiol ligase activity [GO_0016878]

Catalysis of the joining of an acid and a thiol via a carbon-sulfur bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

acidic amino acid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015172]

Enables the transfer of acidic amino acids from one side of a membrane to the other. Acidic amino acids have side chains with a negative charge at pH 7.3.

acidic amino acid transport [GO_0015800]

The directed movement of acidic amino acids, amino acids with a pH below 7, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

Acidification of Tf:TfR1 containing endosome [GO_0015078]

Enables the transfer of a proton from one side of a membrane to the other.

acinar cell differentiation [GO_0090425]

The epithelial cell differentiation process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an acinar cell, a secretory cell that is grouped together with other cells of the same type to form grape-shaped clusters known as acini.

acinar cell proliferation [GO_1990863]

The multiplication or reproduction of acinar cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. An acinar cell is a secretory cell that is grouped together with other cells of the same type to form grape-shaped clusters known as acini (singular acinus).

acireductone dioxygenase [iron(II)-requiring] activity [GO_0010309]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1,2-dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one + O2 = 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate + formate + H+.

ACP phosphopantetheine attachment site binding [GO_0044620]

Binding to the attachment site of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP).

Acrosin Cleavage [GO_0002020]

Binding to a protease or a peptidase.

ACSBG1,2 ligates CoA-SH to VLCFA, forming VLCFA-CoA [GO_0031957]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a very-long-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA; a very long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid which has a chain length greater than C22.

ACSL3,4 ligates coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to palmitate yielding palmitoyl-coenzyme A in the pancreatic beta cell [GO_0090433]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + palmitic acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA.

actin binding [GO_0003779]

Binding to monomeric or multimeric forms of actin, including actin filaments.

actin cytoskeleton [GO_0015629]

The part of the cytoskeleton (the internal framework of a cell) composed of actin and associated proteins. Includes actin cytoskeleton-associated complexes.

actin cytoskeleton organization [GO_0030036]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising actin filaments and their associated proteins.

actin filament [GO_0005884]

A filamentous structure formed of a two-stranded helical polymer of the protein actin and associated proteins. Actin filaments are a major component of the contractile apparatus of skeletal muscle and the microfilaments of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. The filaments, comprising polymerized globular actin molecules, appear as flexible structures with a diameter of 5-9 nm. They are organized into a variety of linear bundles, two-dimensional networks, and three dimensional gels. In the cytoskeleton they are most highly concentrated in the cortex of the cell just beneath the plasma membrane.

actin filament binding [GO_0051015]

Binding to an actin filament, also known as F-actin, a helical filamentous polymer of globular G-actin subunits.

actin filament bundle [GO_0032432]

An assembly of actin filaments that are on the same axis but may be oriented with the same or opposite polarities and may be packed with different levels of tightness.

actin filament bundle assembly [GO_0051017]

The assembly of actin filament bundles; actin filaments are on the same axis but may be oriented with the same or opposite polarities and may be packed with different levels of tightness.

actin filament bundle organization [GO_0061572]

A process that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an actin filament bundle.

actin filament organization [GO_0007015]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising actin filaments. Includes processes that control the spatial distribution of actin filaments, such as organizing filaments into meshworks, bundles, or other structures, as by cross-linking.

actin filament-based movement [GO_0030048]

Movement of organelles or other particles along actin filaments, or sliding of actin filaments past each other, mediated by motor proteins.

actin filament-based process [GO_0030029]

Any cellular process that depends upon or alters the actin cytoskeleton, that part of the cytoskeleton comprising actin filaments and their associated proteins.

actin filament-based transport [GO_0099515]

The transport of organelles or other particles from one location in the cell to another along actin filaments.

actin monomer binding [GO_0003785]

Binding to monomeric actin, also known as G-actin.

actin-based cell projection [GO_0098858]

A cell projection supported by an assembly of actin filaments, and which lacks microtubules.

actinin binding [GO_0042805]

Binding to actinin, any member of a family of proteins that crosslink F-actin.

action potential [GO_0001508]

A process in which membrane potential cycles through a depolarizing spike, triggered in response to depolarization above some threshold, followed by repolarization. This cycle is driven by the flow of ions through various voltage gated channels with different thresholds and ion specificities. Action potentials typically propagate across excitable membranes. This class covers both action potentials that propagate and those that fail to do so.

Activated Adenylyl cyclase synthesizes cyclic AMP [GO_0004016]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP = 3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate.

Activated ERK1/2 threonine-phosphorylates FGFR4-associated FRS2. [GO_0004707]

Catalysis of the reaction: protein + ATP = protein phosphate + ADP. This reaction is the phosphorylation of proteins. Mitogen-activated protein kinase; a family of protein kinases that perform a crucial step in relaying signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. They are activated by a wide range of proliferation- or differentiation-inducing signals; activation is strong with agonists such as polypeptide growth factors and tumor-promoting phorbol esters, but weak (in most cell backgrounds) by stress stimuli.

Activated human MKK3/MKK6 phosphorylates p38 MAPK complexed with MAPKAPK2 or MAPKAPK3 [GO_0004708]

Catalysis of the concomitant phosphorylation of threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y) residues in a Thr-Glu-Tyr (TEY) thiolester sequence in a MAP kinase (MAPK) substrate.

Activated JNK phosphorylates c-JUN [GO_0004705]

Catalysis of the reaction: JUN + ATP = JUN phosphate + ADP. This reaction is the phosphorylation and activation of members of the JUN family, a gene family that encodes nuclear transcription factors.

Activated MAP2Ks phosphorylate MAPKs downstream of inactive BRAF mutants [GO_0004712]

Catalysis of the reactions: ATP + a protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate; ATP + a protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate; and ATP + a protein tyrosine = ADP + protein tyrosine phosphate.

Activated type I receptor phosphorylates R-Smad1/5/8 directly [GO_0004675]

Combining with a signal and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity by catalysis of the reaction: ATP protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate.

activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO_0006919]

Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme cysteine-type endopeptidase in the context of an apoptotic process. This term should be used when the annotation refers to a process that occurs in a context of apoptotic cell death. To annotate gene products involved in activation of cysteine-type endopeptidases in other cellular process (e.g., cell cycle arrest) that do not necessarily develop into an apoptotic process, please use the more general parent term GO:0097202. Examples of ‘activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process’ are cytochrome c and Apaf1. When cytochrome c is released from mitochondria and forms a complex with Apaf1, they form a scaffolding platform in which the pro-caspase 9 is bound (the ‘apoptosome’). The caspase is then cleaved and activated. Cytochrome c and Apaf1 are therefore involved in the conversion of the zymogen procaspase 9 to the active form of the caspase.

Activation of highly calcium permeable postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors [GO_0015276]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens when a specific ligand has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

Activation of NLK [GO_0004674]

Catalysis of the reactions: ATP + protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate.

Activation of TWIK-related K+ channel (TREK) [GO_0005267]

Enables the facilitated diffusion of a potassium ion (by an energy-independent process) involving passage through a transmembrane aqueous pore or channel without evidence for a carrier-mediated mechanism.

active ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0022853]

Enables the transfer of an ion from one side of a membrane to the other up the solute’s concentration gradient. This is carried out by binding the solute and undergoing a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction.

Active PKA, CaMK IV do not phosphorylate MECP2 mutants R306C,(R306H) at T308 [GO_0010857]

Calcium-dependent catalysis of the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP. This reaction requires the presence of calcium.

Active PLCG1 hydrolyses PIP2 [GO_0004435]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + H2O = 1,2-diacylglycerol + 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + H+.

active transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0022804]

Enables the transfer of a specific substance or related group of substances from one side of a membrane to the other, up the solute’s concentration gradient. The transporter binds the solute and undergoes a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction.

activin binding [GO_0048185]

Binding to activin, a dimer of inhibin-beta subunits.

activin receptor activity [GO_0017002]

Combining with activin and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity. Activin is one of two gonadal glycoproteins related to transforming growth factor beta. Note that this term represents an activity and not a gene product, and should only be used when the receptor binds the ligand activin. For binding to other extracellular ligands, consider annotating to terms under ‘transmembrane signaling receptor activity ; GO:0004888.

activin receptor activity, type I [GO_0016361]

Combining with activin-bound type II activin receptor to initiate a change in cell activity; upon binding, acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals.

activin receptor activity, type II [GO_0016362]

Combining with activin to initiate a change in cell activity; upon ligand binding, binds to and catalyses the phosphorylation of a type I activin receptor.

activin receptor binding [GO_0070697]

Binding to an activin receptor.

activin receptor signaling pathway [GO_0032924]

The series of molecular signals initiated by an extracellular ligand binding to an activin receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

actomyosin [GO_0042641]

Any complex of actin, myosin, and accessory proteins.

actomyosin structure organization [GO_0031032]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures containing both actin and myosin or paramyosin. The myosin may be organized into filaments. Note that this term is a child of ‘actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis ; GO:0030036’ because the actin cytoskeleton is defined as actin filaments and associated proteins.

acyl binding [GO_0000035]

Binding to an acyl group, any group formally derived by removal of the hydroxyl group from the acid function of a carboxylic acid.

acyl carnitine transmembrane transport [GO_1902616]

The process in which acyl carnitine is transported across a membrane.

acyl carnitine transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015227]

Enables the transfer of acyl carnitine from one side of a membrane to the other. Acyl carnitine is the condensation product of a carboxylic acid and carnitine and is the transport form for a fatty acid crossing the mitochondrial membrane.

acyl carnitine transport [GO_0006844]

The directed movement of acyl carnitine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Acyl carnitine is the condensation product of a carboxylic acid and carnitine and is the transport form for a fatty acid crossing the mitochondrial membrane.

acyl carrier activity [GO_0000036]

Binding an acyl group and presenting it for processing or offloading to a cognate enzyme. Covalently binds the acyl group via a phosphopantetheine prosthetic group and mediates protein-protein interactions with the enzyme conferring specificity. The acyl carrier protein (ACP) presents substrates to enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis or in polyketide secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

acyl-CoA binding [GO_0120227]

Binding to an acyl-CoA, a thioester that results from the formal condensation of the thiol group of coenzyme A with the carboxy group of any carboxylic acid.

acyl-CoA desaturase activity [GO_0016215]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + reduced acceptor + O2 = desaturated-acyl-CoA + acceptor + 2 H2O.

acyl-CoA hydrolase activity [GO_0047617]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + H2O = CoA + a carboxylate.

acylglycerol biosynthetic process [GO_0046463]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of acylglycerol, any mono-, di- or triester of glycerol with (one or more) fatty acids.

acylglycerol metabolic process [GO_0006639]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving acylglycerol, any mono-, di- or triester of glycerol with (one or more) fatty acids.

acylphosphatase activity [GO_0003998]

Catalysis of the reaction: an acyl phosphate + H2O = a carboxylate + phosphate.

acyltransferase activity, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer [GO_0046912]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor), with the acyl group being converted into alkyl on transfer.

acyltransferase activity, transferring groups other than amino-acyl groups [GO_0016747]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group, other than amino-acyl, from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

ADAM10:Zn2+:TSPANs cleaves APP(18-770) [GO_1902945]

Any metalloendopeptidase activity that is involved in amyloid precursor protein catabolic process.

ADAT1 deaminates adenosine-37 in tRNA(Ala) [GO_0008251]

Catalysis of the reaction: adenosine + H2O = inosine + NH3, in a tRNA molecule.

Addition of GlcNAc to the glycan on the A arm [GO_0003827]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3-(alpha-D-mannosyl)-beta-D-mannosyl-R + UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine = 3-(2-[N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl]-alpha-D-mannosyl)-beta-D-mannosyl-R + H+ + UDP.

Addition of GlcNAc to the Tn antigen forms a Core 3 glycoprotein [GO_0008499]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine = galactose-beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine + UDP.

Addition of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to DMAPP [GO_0004161]

Catalysis of the reaction: dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranyl diphosphate. Note that this is the first step in the formation of farnesyl diphosphate. The second step is ‘geranyltranstransferase activity ; GO:0004337’. Consider also annotating to the biological process term ‘farnesyl diphosphate biosynthetic process ; GO:0045337’.

adenine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0000295]

Enables the transfer of adenine nucleotides (AMP, ADP, and ATP) from one side of a membrane to the other.

adenine nucleotide transport [GO_0051503]

The directed movement of adenine nucleotides, ATP, ADP, and/or AMP, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate transmembrane transport [GO_0071106]

The process in which adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate is transported across a membrane. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0071077]

Enables the transfer of adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate from one side of a membrane to the other.

adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidase activity [GO_0043530]

Catalysis of the reaction: adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate + H2O = AMP + NH4+. Other substrates include AMP-morpholidate, AMP-N-alanine methyl ester and AMP-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester.

adenosine-phosphate deaminase activity [GO_0047623]

Catalysis of the reaction: an adenosine-phosphate + H20 = an inosine phosphate + NH3. Catalyzes the deamination of AMP, ADP or ATP. Consider instead annotating to one of the more specific terms: AMP deaminase activity ; GO:0003876, ADP deaminase activity ; GO:0047629, or ATP deaminase activity ; GO:0047692.

adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity [GO_0004014]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + H+ = S-adenosylmethioninamine + CO2.

adenyl nucleotide binding [GO_0030554]

Binding to an adenyl nucleotide, an adenosine esterified with (ortho)phosphate.

adenyl ribonucleotide binding [GO_0032559]

Binding to an adenyl ribonucleotide, any compound consisting of adenosine esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety.

adenylate cyclase activator activity [GO_0010856]

Binds to and increases the activity of adenylate cyclase.

adenylate cyclase binding [GO_0008179]

Binding to an adenylate cyclase.

adenylate cyclase inhibiting G protein-coupled glutamate receptor activity [GO_0001640]

Combining with glutamate and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex to inhibit downstream adenylate cyclase activity.

adenylate cyclase inhibitor activity [GO_0010855]

Binds to and decreases the activity adenylate cyclase.

adenylate cyclase regulator activity [GO_0010854]

Binds to and modulates the activity of adenylate cyclase.

adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007196]

An adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway initiated by glutamate binding to its receptor, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process.

adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007193]

A G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway in which the signal is transmitted via the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent decrease in the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). This term is intended to cover steps in a GPCR signaling pathway both upstream and downstream of adenylate-cyclase inhibition.

adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007188]

A G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway in which the signal is transmitted via the activation or inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent change in the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). This term is intended to cover steps in a GPCR signaling pathway both upstream and downstream of adenylate-cyclase activity. For steps upstream of adenylate cyclase activity, consider instead annotating to ‘regulation of adenylate cyclase activity involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway ; GO:0010578.

adenylosuccinate synthase activity [GO_0004019]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-aspartate + GTP + IMP = N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-AMP + GDP + 3 H+ + phosphate.

adenylyltransferase activity [GO_0070566]

Catalysis of the transfer of an adenylyl group to an acceptor.

ADH5 oxidises S-HMGSH to S-FGSH [GO_0051903]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione + NAD(P)+ = S-formylglutathione + NAD(P)H + H+.

adipokinetic hormone binding [GO_0097004]

Binding to an adipokinetic hormone. Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion. They also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis.

adipokinetic hormone receptor activity [GO_0097003]

Combining with an adipokinetic hormone to initiate a change in cell activity. Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are protein or peptide hormones that are important for sugar and fat homeostasis in metazoa. In insects, they mobilize sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion. They also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis.

adipokinetic hormone receptor binding [GO_0097005]

Binding to an adipokinetic hormone receptor. Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion. They also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis.

adiponectin binding [GO_0055100]

Binding to adiponectin, a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism.

adipose tissue development [GO_0060612]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of adipose tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Adipose tissue is specialized tissue that is used to store fat.

ADP binding [GO_0043531]

Binding to ADP, adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP metabolic process [GO_0046031]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving ADP, adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP phosphatase activity [GO_0043262]

Catalysis of the reaction: ADP + H2O = AMP + phosphate.

ADP transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015217]

Enables the transfer of ADP, adenosine diphosphate, from one side of a membrane to the other.

ADP transport [GO_0015866]

The directed movement of ADP, adenosine diphosphate, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

ADP-ribose diphosphatase activity [GO_0047631]

Catalysis of the reaction: ADP-ribose + H2O = AMP + D-ribose 5-phosphate.

ADP-ribosylglutamate hydrolase activity [GO_0140293]

Catalysis of the reaction: (ADP-D-ribosyl)-L-glutamyl-[protein] + H2O = L-glutamyl-[protein] + ADP-ribose.

adrenergic receptor activity [GO_0004935]

Combining with epinephrine or norepinephrine and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

adrenergic receptor signaling pathway [GO_0071875]

A G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway initiated by a ligand binding to an adrenergic receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process.

adult behavior [GO_0030534]

Behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

adult feeding behavior [GO_0008343]

Feeding behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘feeding behavior ; GO:0007631’.

adult locomotory behavior [GO_0008344]

Locomotory behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘locomotory behavior ; GO:0007626’.

adult walking behavior [GO_0007628]

The behavior of an adult relating to the progression of that organism along the ground by the process of lifting and setting down each leg.

aerobic respiration [GO_0009060]

The enzymatic release of energy from inorganic and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which requires oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor.

aggressive behavior [GO_0002118]

A behavioral interaction between organisms in which one organism has the intention of inflicting physical damage on another individual.

aging [GO_0007568]

A developmental process that is a deterioration and loss of function over time. Aging includes loss of functions such as resistance to disease, homeostasis, and fertility, as well as wear and tear. Aging includes cellular senescence, but is more inclusive. May precede death and may succeed developmental maturation (GO:0021700).

alanine-glyoxylate transaminase activity [GO_0008453]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-alanine + glyoxylate = pyruvate + glycine.

alanine-oxo-acid transaminase activity [GO_0047635]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-alanine + a 2-oxo acid = pyruvate + an L-amino acid.

ALAS condenses SUCC-CoA and Gly to form dALA [GO_0003870]

Catalysis of the reaction: glycine + H+ + succinyl-CoA = 5-aminolevulinate + CO2 + CoA.

alcohol binding [GO_0043178]

Binding to an alcohol, any of a class of alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group.

alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity [GO_0004022]

Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+.

alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity [GO_0008106]

Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NADP+ = an aldehyde + NADPH + H+.

alcohol dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity [GO_0018455]

Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD(P)+ = an aldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+.

alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent [GO_0004024]

Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+, requiring the presence of zinc.

alcohol metabolic process [GO_0006066]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.

ALD3A1 oxidises 4HPCP to CXPA [GO_0004030]

Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O = an acid + NAD(P)H + H+.

aldehyde biosynthetic process [GO_0046184]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aldehydes, any organic compound with the formula R-CH=O.

aldehyde decarbonylase activity [GO_0071771]

Catalysis of the reaction: a C(n) aldehyde = C(n-1) alkane + CO.

aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity [GO_0004029]

Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = an acid + NADH + H+.

aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) inhibitor activity [GO_0140631]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+).

aldehyde oxidase activity [GO_0004031]

Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + H2O + O2 = a carboxylic acid + hydrogen peroxide.

aldehyde-lyase activity [GO_0016832]

Catalysis of the cleavage of a C-C bond in a molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group to form two smaller molecules, each being an aldehyde or a ketone.

ALDH4A1 oxidises L-GluSS to Glu [GO_0003842]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD+ + H2O = L-glutamate + NADH + H+.

alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity [GO_0004032]

Catalysis of the reaction: an alditol + NADP+ = an aldose + NADPH + H+.

aldose 1-epimerase activity [GO_0004034]

Catalysis of the reaction: alpha-D-glucose = beta-D-glucose. Also acts on L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose.

alkali metal ion binding [GO_0031420]

Binding to an alkali metal ion; alkali metals are those elements in group Ia of the periodic table, with the exception of hydrogen.

alkaloid biosynthetic process [GO_0009821]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as nonprotein amino acids, amines, peptides, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones, or primary metabolite (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).

alkaloid catabolic process [GO_0009822]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).

alkaloid metabolic process [GO_0009820]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).

alkane 1-monooxygenase activity [GO_0018685]

Catalysis of the reaction: octane + reduced rubredoxin + O2 = 1-octanol + oxidized rubredoxin + H2O.

alkanesulfonate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0042959]

Enables the directed movement of alkanesulfonate from one side of a membrane to the other.

alkanesulfonate transport [GO_0042918]

The directed movement of an alkanesulfonate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Alkanesulfonates are organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.

allantois development [GO_1905069]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an allantois over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

allatostatin receptor activity [GO_0008261]

Combining with allatostatin to initiate a change in cell activity.

alpha,alpha-trehalase activity [GO_0004555]

Catalysis of the reaction: alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O = 2 D-glucose.

alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) activity [GO_0003825]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + D-glucose-6-phosphate = UDP + alpha,alpha-trehalose-6-phosphate.

alpha-1,3-glucosidase activity [GO_0090600]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-(1->3)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.

alpha-actinin binding [GO_0051393]

Binding to alpha-actinin, one of a family of proteins that cross-link F-actin as antiparallel homodimers. Alpha-actinin has a molecular mass of 93-103 KDa; at the N-terminus there are two calponin homology domains, at the C-terminus there are two EF-hands. These two domains are connected by the rod domain. This domain is formed by triple-helical spectrin repeats.

alpha-amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_1901607]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an alpha-amino acid.

alpha-amino acid catabolic process [GO_1901606]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of an alpha-amino acid.

alpha-amino acid metabolic process [GO_1901605]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an alpha-amino acid.

alpha-aminoadipate + alpha-ketoglutarate <=> alpha-ketoadipate + glutamate [GO_0047536]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-oxoglutarate + L-2-aminoadipate = 2-oxoadipate + L-glutamate.

alpha-catenin binding [GO_0045294]

Binding to catenin complex alpha subunit.

alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate + NADP+ => D-glucono-1,5-lactone 6-phosphate + NADPH + H+ [GO_0004345]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucose 6-phosphate + NADP+ = D-glucono-1,5-lactone 6-phosphate + NADPH + H+.

alpha-galactosidase activity [GO_0004557]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-D-galactosides, including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans and galactohydrolase.

alpha-glucosidase activity [GO_0090599]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-linked alpha-D-glucose residue with release of alpha-D-glucose.

alpha-ketoglutarate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015139]

Enables the transfer of alpha-ketoglutarate from one side of a membrane to the other. Alpha-ketoglutarate (or oxoglutarate) is a compound with important roles in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, especially in transamination reactions and as a component of the TCA cycle.

alpha-ketoglutarate transport [GO_0015742]

The directed movement of alpha-ketoglutarate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

alpha-tubulin binding [GO_0043014]

Binding to the microtubule constituent protein alpha-tubulin.

ALPI dimer hydrolyses phosphate monoesters [GO_0004035]

Catalysis of the reaction: an orthophosphoric monoester + H2O = an alcohol + phosphate, with an alkaline pH optimum.

AMDHD2 hydrolyses GlcNGc-6-P to GlcN6P and CCA [GO_0008448]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + H2O = D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetate.

ameboidal-type cell migration [GO_0001667]

Cell migration that is accomplished by extension and retraction of a pseudopodium. Note that this term refers to a mode of migration rather than to any particular cell type.

amide binding [GO_0033218]

Binding to an amide, any derivative of an oxoacid in which an acidic hydroxy group has been replaced by an amino or substituted amino group.

amide biosynthetic process [GO_0043604]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an amide, any derivative of an oxoacid in which an acidic hydroxy group has been replaced by an amino or substituted amino group.

amide transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0042887]

Enables the transfer of an amide, any compound containing one, two, or three acyl groups attached to a nitrogen atom, from one side of a membrane to the other.

amide transport [GO_0042886]

The directed movement of an amide, any compound containing one, two, or three acyl groups attached to a nitrogen atom, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amidine-lyase activity [GO_0016842]

Catalysis of the release of amides or amidines by the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond or the reverse reaction with an amide or amidine as a substrate.

amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity [GO_0004044]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + L-glutamate + diphosphate = 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + L-glutamine + H2O.

amine binding [GO_0043176]

Binding to an amine, a weakly basic organic compound that contains an amino or a substituted amino group.

amine biosynthetic process [GO_0009309]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

amine catabolic process [GO_0009310]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

amine metabolic process [GO_0009308]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

amine transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0005275]

Enables the transfer of amines, including polyamines, from one side of a membrane to the other. Amines are organic compounds that are weakly basic in character and contain an amino (-NH2) or substituted amino group.

amine transport [GO_0015837]

The directed movement of amines, including polyamines, organic compounds containing one or more amino groups, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amine-lyase activity [GO_0016843]

Catalysis of the release of amines by the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond or the reverse reaction with an amine as a substrate.

amino acid binding [GO_0016597]

Binding to an amino acid, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

amino acid homeostasis [GO_0080144]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of amino acid within an organism or cell.

amino acid kinase activity [GO_0019202]

Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to an amino acid substrate.

amino acid transmembrane transport [GO_0003333]

The process in which an amino acid is transported across a membrane. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

amino acid transport [GO_0006865]

The directed movement of amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amino acid:cation symporter activity [GO_0005416]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: amino acid(out) + cation(out) = amino acid(in) + cation(in).

amino acid:sodium symporter activity [GO_0005283]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: amino acid(out) + Na+(out) = amino acid(in) + Na+(in).

amino-acid racemase activity [GO_0047661]

Catalysis of the reaction: an L-amino acid = a D-amino acid.

aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity [GO_0002161]

The hydrolysis of an incorrectly aminoacylated tRNA.

aminoacyl-tRNA hydrolase activity [GO_0004045]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-substituted aminoacyl-tRNA + H2O = N-substituted amino acid + tRNA.

aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity [GO_0004812]

Catalysis of the formation of aminoacyl-tRNA from ATP, amino acid, and tRNA with the release of diphosphate and AMP. Note that the bond resulting from this reaction is a carboxylic acid ester bond, linking the alpha carboxyl group of the amino acid to either the 2' or 3' hydroxyl of the 3'- terminal adenyl residue of the tRNA.

aminoacyl-tRNA metabolism involved in translational fidelity [GO_0106074]

Any process which detects an amino-acid acetylated tRNA is charged with the correct amino acid, or removes incorrect amino acids from a charged tRNA. This process can be performed by tRNA synthases, or by subsequent reactions after tRNA aminoacylation.

aminoacylase activity [GO_0004046]

Catalysis of the reaction: an N-acyl-L-amino acid + H2O = a carboxylate + an L-amino acid.

aminoacyltransferase activity [GO_0016755]

Catalysis of the transfer of an amino-acyl group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

aminoglycan biosynthetic process [GO_0006023]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.

aminoglycan catabolic process [GO_0006026]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.

aminoglycan metabolic process [GO_0006022]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.

ammonia ligase activity [GO_0016211]

Catalysis of the ligation of ammonia (NH3) to another substance via a carbon-nitrogen bond with concomitant breakage of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate.

ammonia-lyase activity [GO_0016841]

Catalysis of the release of ammonia by the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond or the reverse reaction with ammonia as a substrate.

ammonium excretion [GO_0140734]

The elimination of ammonium ions from an excretory cell.

ammonium homeostasis [GO_0097272]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of ammonium.

ammonium ion binding [GO_0070405]

Binding to ammonium ions (NH4+).

ammonium ion metabolic process [GO_0097164]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving the ammonium ion.

ammonium transmembrane transport [GO_0072488]

The process in which ammonium is transported across a membrane. Ammonium is the cation NH4+. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

ammonium transport [GO_0015696]

The directed movement of ammonium into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Ammonium is the cation NH4+ which is formed from N2 by root-nodule bacteria in leguminous plants and is an excretory product in ammonotelic animals.

AMP binding [GO_0016208]

Binding to AMP, adenosine monophosphate.

AMP biosynthetic process [GO_0006167]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of AMP, adenosine monophosphate.

AMP deaminase activity [GO_0003876]

Catalysis of the reaction: AMP + H2O = IMP + NH3.

AMP metabolic process [GO_0046033]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving AMP, adenosine monophosphate.

AMP transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0080122]

Enables the transfer of AMP, adenosine monophosphate, from one side of a membrane to the other.

AMP transport [GO_0080121]

The directed movement of AMP, adenosine monophosphate, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

AMT transfers NH2CH2 from GCSH:SAMDLL to THF [GO_0004047]

Catalysis of the reaction: (6S)-tetrahydrofolate + S-aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein = (6R)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + NH3 + dihydrolipoylprotein.

amylase activity [GO_0016160]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of amylose or an amylose derivative.

amyloid precursor protein catabolic process [GO_0042987]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the precursor of amyloid-beta, a glycoprotein associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

amyloid precursor protein metabolic process [GO_0042982]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving amyloid precursor protein (APP), the precursor of amyloid-beta, a glycoprotein associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

amyloid-beta binding [GO_0001540]

Binding to an amyloid-beta peptide/protein.

An unknown carrier transports mitochondrial glyoxylate to the cytosol [GO_0022857]

Enables the transfer of a substance, usually a specific substance or a group of related substances, from one side of a membrane to the other.

An unknown oxidase oxidises D-UBGN to UBN [GO_0016627]

Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which a CH-CH group acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and reduces a hydrogen or electron acceptor.

anaphase-promoting complex binding [GO_0010997]

Binding to an anaphase-promoting complex. A ubiquitin ligase complex that degrades mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitory protein, thereby triggering sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis.

anatomical structure development [GO_0048856]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an anatomical structure from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the structure and ends with the mature structure, whatever form that may be including its natural destruction. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

anatomical structure formation involved in morphogenesis [GO_0048646]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an anatomical structure from unspecified parts. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the discrete structure and ends when the structural rudiment is recognizable. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome. Note that, for example, the formation of a pseudopod in an amoeba would not be considered formation involved in morphogenesis because it would not be thought of as the formation of an anatomical structure that was part of the shaping of the amoeba during its development. The formation of an axon from a neuron would be considered the formation of an anatomical structure involved in morphogenesis because it contributes to the creation of the form of the neuron in a developmental sense.

anatomical structure homeostasis [GO_0060249]

A homeostatic process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state within a defined anatomical structure of an organism, including control of cellular proliferation and death and control of metabolic function. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

anatomical structure maturation [GO_0071695]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an anatomical structure to attain its fully functional state.

anatomical structure morphogenesis [GO_0009653]

The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.

anchoring junction [GO_0070161]

A cell junction that mechanically attaches a cell (and its cytoskeleton) to neighboring cells or to the extracellular matrix.

androgen secretion [GO_0035935]

The regulated release of an androgen into the circulatory system. Androgens are steroid hormones that stimulate or control the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates.

anesthesia-resistant memory [GO_0007615]

The memory process that results in the formation of consolidated memory resistant to disruption of the patterned activity of the brain, without requiring protein synthesis.

angioblast cell differentiation [GO_0035779]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of an angioblast cell. Angioblasts are one of the two products formed from hemangioblast cells (the other being pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells).

angiogenesis [GO_0001525]

Blood vessel formation when new vessels emerge from the proliferation of pre-existing blood vessels.

angiogenesis involved in coronary vascular morphogenesis [GO_0060978]

Blood vessel formation in the heart when new vessels emerge from the proliferation of pre-existing blood vessels.

animal organ development [GO_0048513]

Development of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Development pertains to the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a structure over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

animal organ formation [GO_0048645]

The process pertaining to the initial formation of an animal organ from unspecified parts. The process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the discrete structure, such as inductive events, and ends when the structural rudiment of the organ is recognizable, such as a condensation of mesenchymal cells into the organ rudiment. Organs are a natural part or structure in an animal or a plant, capable of performing some special action (termed its function), which is essential to the life or well-being of the whole. The heart and lungs are organs of animals, and the petal and leaf are organs of plants. In animals the organs are generally made up of several tissues, one of which usually predominates, and determines the principal function of the organ.

animal organ maturation [GO_0048799]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an animal organ to attain its fully functional state. An organ is a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0009887]

Morphogenesis of an animal organ. An organ is defined as a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

anion binding [GO_0043168]

Binding to an anion, a charged atom or group of atoms with a net negative charge.

anion channel activity [GO_0005253]

Enables the energy-independent passage of anions across a lipid bilayer down a concentration gradient.

anion homeostasis [GO_0055081]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of anions within an organism or cell.

anion transmembrane transport [GO_0098656]

The process in which an anion is transported across a membrane.

anion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0008509]

Enables the transfer of a negatively charged ion from one side of a membrane to the other.

anion transport [GO_0006820]

The directed movement of anions, atoms or small molecules with a net negative charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

anion:cation symporter activity [GO_0015296]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: anion(out) + cation(out) = anion(in) + cation(in).

anion:sodium symporter activity [GO_0015373]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: monovalent anion(out) + Na+(out) = monovalent anion(in) + Na+(in).

ankyrin binding [GO_0030506]

Binding to ankyrin, a 200 kDa cytoskeletal protein that attaches other cytoskeletal proteins to integral membrane proteins.

annealing activity [GO_0140666]

An activity that facilitates the formation of a complementary double-stranded polynucleotide molecule.

anterior/posterior pattern specification [GO_0009952]

The regionalization process in which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along the anterior-posterior axis. The anterior-posterior axis is defined by a line that runs from the head or mouth of an organism to the tail or opposite end of the organism.

anterograde trans-synaptic signaling [GO_0098916]

Cell-cell signaling from pre to post-synapse, across the synaptic cleft.

Anthrax lef cleaves target cell MAP2K7 (MEK7) [GO_0008237]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds by a mechanism in which water acts as a nucleophile, one or two metal ions hold the water molecule in place, and charged amino acid side chains are ligands for the metal ions.

antigen binding [GO_0003823]

Binding to an antigen, any substance which is capable of inducing a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response, the specific antibody or specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes, or both. Binding may counteract the biological activity of the antigen.

antioxidant activity [GO_0016209]

Inhibition of the reactions brought about by dioxygen (O2) or peroxides. Usually the antioxidant is effective because it can itself be more easily oxidized than the substance protected. The term is often applied to components that can trap free radicals, thereby breaking the chain reaction that normally leads to extensive biological damage.

aorta development [GO_0035904]

The progression of the aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035909]

The process in which the anatomical structures of an aorta are generated and organized. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

aorta smooth muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0060414]

The process in which the structure of the smooth muscle tissue surrounding the aorta is generated and organized. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_0035887]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a smooth muscle cell surrounding the aorta.

AP-1 adaptor complex binding [GO_0035650]

Binding to an AP-1 adaptor complex. The AP-1 adaptor complex is a heterotetrameric AP-type membrane coat adaptor complex that consists of beta1, gamma, mu1 and sigma1 subunits and links clathrin to the membrane surface of a vesicle. In at least humans, the AP-1 complex can be heterogeneric due to the existence of multiple subunit isoforms encoded by different genes (gamma1 and gamma2, mu1A and mu1B, and sigma1A, sigma1B and sigma1C).

AP-2 adaptor complex binding [GO_0035612]

Binding to an AP-2 adaptor complex. The AP-2 adaptor complex is a heterotetrameric AP-type membrane coat adaptor complex that consists of alpha, beta2, mu2 and sigma2 subunits and links clathrin to the membrane surface of a vesicle. In at least humans, the AP-2 complex can be heterogeneric due to the existence of multiple subunit isoforms encoded by different alpha genes (alphaA and alphaC).

apical ectodermal ridge formation [GO_1905139]

The process that gives rise to the apical ectodermal ridge. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.

apolipoprotein binding [GO_0034185]

Binding to an apolipoprotein, the protein component of a lipoprotein complex.

apoptotic chromosome condensation [GO_0030263]

The compaction of chromatin during apoptosis.

apoptotic nuclear changes [GO_0030262]

Alterations undergone by nuclei at the molecular and morphological level as part of the execution phase of apoptosis.

apoptotic process [GO_0006915]

A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an execution phase. The execution phase is the last step of an apoptotic process, and is typically characterized by rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.

apoptotic process involved in blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_1902262]

Any apoptotic process that is involved in blood vessel morphogenesis.

apoptotic process involved in development [GO_1902742]

Any apoptotic process that is involved in anatomical structure development.

apoptotic process involved in endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO_0003277]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of an endocardial cushion. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

apoptotic process involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0003278]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis [GO_0060561]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of an anatomical structure.

apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0003275]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of the outflow tract. The outflow tract is the portion of the heart through which blood flows into the arteries.

apoptotic process involved in tube lumen cavitation [GO_0060609]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the hollowing out of an epithelial rod or cord to form the central hole in a tube.

apoptotic signaling pathway [GO_0097190]

A series of molecular signals which triggers the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway starts with reception of a signal, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. This term can be used to annotate gene products involved in apoptotic events happening downstream of the cross-talk point between the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. The cross-talk starts when caspase-8 cleaves Bid and truncated Bid interacts with mitochondria. From this point on it is not possible to distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

appendage development [GO_0048736]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an appendage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An appendage is an organ or part that is attached to the trunk of an organism, such as a limb or a branch.

appendage morphogenesis [GO_0035107]

The process in which the anatomical structures of appendages are generated and organized. An appendage is an organ or part that is attached to the trunk of an organism, such as a limb or a branch.

arginine kinase activity [GO_0004054]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-arginine + ATP = N(omega)-phospho-L-arginine + ADP + 2 H+.

arginine N-methyltransferase activity [GO_0016273]

Enables the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to an amino group of an arginine residue.

arginine-tRNA ligase activity [GO_0004814]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-arginine + tRNA(Arg) = AMP + diphosphate + L-arginyl-tRNA(Arg).

argininosuccinate lyase activity [GO_0004056]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-(L-arginino)succinate = fumarate + L-arginine.

argininosuccinate synthase activity [GO_0004055]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-citrulline + L-aspartate = AMP + diphosphate + (N(omega)-L-arginino)succinate.

arginyltransferase activity [GO_0004057]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-arginyl-tRNA + protein = tRNA + L-arginyl-protein.

ARHGAP35 stimulates RHOA GTPase activity [GO_0003924]

Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = GDP + H+ + phosphate.

aromatic amino acid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015173]

Enables the transfer of aromatic amino acids from one side of a membrane to the other. Aromatic amino acids have an aromatic ring.

aromatic amino acid transport [GO_0015801]

The directed movement of aromatic amino acids, amino acids with aromatic ring, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

aromatic compound biosynthetic process [GO_0019438]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aromatic compounds, any substance containing an aromatic carbon ring.

aromatic compound catabolic process [GO_0019439]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of aromatic compounds, any substance containing an aromatic carbon ring.

aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase activity [GO_0004058]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-amino acid + H+ = R-H + CO2.

Arp2/3 complex binding [GO_0071933]

Binding to an Arp2/3 complex, a protein complex that contains two actin-related proteins, Arp2 and Arp3, and five novel proteins (ARPC1-5).

arterial endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0060842]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized endothelial cell acquires specialized features of an arterial endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell that lines the inside surfaces of arteries.

artery development [GO_0060840]

The progression of the artery over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to a capillary bed.

artery morphogenesis [GO_0048844]

The process in which the anatomical structures of arterial blood vessels are generated and organized. Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood from the heart to the body and its organs.

ARV1 transports CHOL from ER membrane to plasma membrane [GO_0015248]

Enables the directed movement of sterols into, out of or within a cell, or between cells. Sterol are steroids with one or more hydroxyl groups and a hydrocarbon side-chain in the molecule.

arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity [GO_0004060]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + an arylamine = CoA + an N-acetylarylamine.

arylesterase activity [GO_0004064]

Catalysis of the reaction: a phenyl acetate + H2O = a phenol + acetate.

ascending aorta development [GO_0035905]

The progression of the ascending aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta. In a two-pass circulatory system blood passes twice through the heart to supply the body once.

ascending aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035910]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the ascending aorta are generated and organized. The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta. In a two-pass circulatory system blood passes twice through the heart to supply the body once.

asioloorosomucoid beta-1,3-glucuronosyltransferase activity [GO_0046988]

Catalysis of the transfer, in a beta 1,3 linkage, of D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) from UDP-GlcUA to asioloorosomucoid.

asparagine-tRNA ligase activity [GO_0004816]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-asparagine + ATP + tRNA(Asn) = AMP + Asn-tRNA(Asn) + diphosphate + 2 H+.

aspartate + glutamine + ATP <=> asparagine + glutamate + AMP + pyrophosphate [ASNS] [GO_0004066]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.

aspartate + tRNA(Asp) + ATP => Asp-tRNA(Asp) + AMP + pyrophosphate [GO_0004815]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-aspartate + tRNA(Asp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp).

aspartate 1-decarboxylase activity [GO_0004068]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-aspartate = beta-alanine + CO2. Note that this term has a MetaCyc pathway reference as the pathway only has a single step.

aspartate transmembrane transport [GO_0015810]

The process in which aspartate is transported across a lipid bilayer, from one side of a membrane to the other.

aspartic-type endopeptidase activity involved in amyloid precursor protein catabolic process [GO_1902944]

Any aspartic-type endopeptidase activity that is involved in amyloid precursor protein catabolic process.

aspartic-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity [GO_0019828]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of aspartic-type endopeptidases.

aspartic-type peptidase activity [GO_0070001]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a mechanism in which a water molecule bound by the side chains of aspartic residues at the active center acts as a nucleophile.

ASPG hydrolyses L-Asn to L-Asp [GO_0004067]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-asparagine + H2O = L-aspartate + NH3.

Association of GABA B receptor with G protein beta-gamma subunits [GO_0004965]

Combining with the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate) and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

associative learning [GO_0008306]

Learning by associating a stimulus (the cause) with a particular outcome (the effect).

asymmetric cell division [GO_0008356]

The asymmetric division of cells to produce two daughter cells with different developmental potentials. It is of fundamental significance for the generation of cell diversity.

asymmetric neuroblast division [GO_0055059]

The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a neuroblast into two daughter cells with different developmental potentials.

asymmetric stem cell division [GO_0098722]

Division of a stem cell during which it retains its identity and buds off a daughter cell with a new identity.

ATG3 transfers LC3 from ATG7 to ATG3 [GO_0019776]

Catalysis of the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to substrate molecules; phosphatidylethanolamine is a known substrate.

Atg8-specific peptidase activity [GO_0019786]

A thiol-dependent isopeptidase activity that cleaves APG8 from a target protein to which it is conjugated.

ATP + 3-Phospho-D-glycerate <=> ADP + 1,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate [GO_0004618]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3-phospho-D-glycerate + ATP = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + ADP + H+.

ATP biosynthetic process [GO_0006754]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.

ATP citrate synthase activity [GO_0003878]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + ADP + H+ + oxaloacetate + phosphate = ATP + citrate + CoA. Note that this function was formerly EC:4.1.3.8. Note that this term has a MetaCyc pathway reference as the pathway only has a single step.

ATP generation from ADP [GO_0006757]

The process of introducing a phosphate group into ADP, adenosine diphosphate, to produce ATP.

ATP metabolic process [GO_0046034]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving ATP, adenosine triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.

ATP transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0005347]

Enables the transfer of ATP, adenosine triphosphate, from one side of a membrane to the other.

ATP transport [GO_0015867]

The directed movement of ATP, adenosine triphosphate, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

ATP-dependent activity [GO_0140657]

A molecular function characterized by the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to other steps of a reaction mechanism to make the reaction energetically favorable, for example to catalyze a reaction or drive transport against a concentration gradient. Note that this term represents a grouping class that includes all proteins that use ATP hydrolysis to drive a reaction; it is not meant to capture the ATP hydrolysis reaction itself. To annotate ATP hydrolysis, please use ‘ATP hydrolysis activity ; GO:0016887’.

ATP-dependent activity, acting on DNA [GO_0008094]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify DNA, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

ATP-dependent activity, acting on RNA [GO_0008186]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate; this reaction requires the presence of RNA, and it drives another reaction.

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler activity [GO_0140658]

An activity, driven by ATP hydrolysis, that modulates the contacts between histones and DNA, resulting in a change in chromosome architecture within the nucleosomal array, leading to chromatin remodeling.

ATP-dependent DNA damage sensor activity [GO_0140664]

A molecule that recognises toxic DNA structures, and initiates a signalling response, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

ATP-dependent FeS chaperone activity [GO_0140663]

Binding to and delivering metal ions to a target protein, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

ATP-dependent H2AZ histone chaperone activity [GO_0140849]

A histone chaperone that mediates the exchange of histone H2A-H2B dimer and histone H2AZ-H2B dimers in a nucleosome, driven by ATP hydrolysis. Some chaperones insert H2AZ-H2B dimers dimers and remove H2A-H2B, while others do the opposite. Drosophila H2AV corresponds to histone H2AZ.

ATP-dependent histone chaperone activity [GO_0140674]

Binding to and carrying a histone or a histone complex to unload or deposit it as a nucleosome, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

ATP-dependent protein binding [GO_0043008]

Binding to a protein or protein complex using energy from ATP hydrolysis.

ATP-dependent protein folding chaperone [GO_0140662]

Binding to a protein or a protein-containing complex to assist the protein folding process, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

ATP2C1/2:Mg2+ transport cytosolic Ca2+ to Golgi lumen [GO_0005388]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Ca2+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Ca2+(out).

ATP:ADP antiporter activity [GO_0005471]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP(out) + ADP(in) = ATP(in) + ADP(out).

ATPase activator activity [GO_0001671]

Binds to and increases the activity of an ATP hydrolysis activity.

ATPase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of ions, rotational mechanism [GO_0044769]

Enables the transfer of ions from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + ion(in) = ADP + phosphate + ion(out), by a rotational mechanism.

ATPase binding [GO_0051117]

Binding to an ATPase, any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP.

ATPase coupled ion transmembrane transporter activity involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential [GO_0099581]

Any ATPase coupled ion transmembrane transporter activity, occurring in the postsynaptic membrane, that is involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential.

ATPase inhibitor activity [GO_0042030]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces an ATP hydrolysis activity.

ATPase regulator activity [GO_0060590]

Binds to and modulates the activity of an ATP hydrolysis activity.

ATPase-coupled cation transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0019829]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + cation(out) = ADP + phosphate + cation(in).

ATPase-coupled inorganic anion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0043225]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + inorganic anion(out) = ADP + phosphate + inorganic anion(in).

ATPase-coupled ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0042625]

Enables the transfer of an ion from one side of a membrane to the other, driven by the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate.

ATPase-coupled lipid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0034040]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + lipid(in) = ADP + phosphate + lipid(out).

atrial cardiac muscle tissue development [GO_0003228]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of cardiac muscle of the atrium over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

atrial cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0055009]

The process in which the anatomical structure of cardiac atrium muscle is generated and organized.

atrial septum development [GO_0003283]

The progression of the atrial septum over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure.

atrial septum morphogenesis [GO_0060413]

The developmental process in which atrial septum is generated and organized. The atrial septum separates the upper chambers (the atria) of the heart from one another.

atrioventricular node cell development [GO_0060928]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an atrioventricular (AV) node cell over time, from its formation to the mature state.

atrioventricular node cell differentiation [GO_0060922]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an atrioventricular (AV) node cell. AV node cells are pacemaker cells that are found in the atrioventricular node.

atrioventricular node development [GO_0003162]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the atrioventricular (AV) node over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The AV node is part of the cardiac conduction system that controls the timing of ventricle contraction by receiving electrical signals from the sinoatrial (SA) node and relaying them to the His-Purkinje system.

Auto phosphorylation of TAK1 bound to p-IRAK2:pUb oligo-TRAF6: free K63 pUb:TAB1:TAB2/TAB3 [GO_0008349]

Catalysis of the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), resulting in activation of MAPKKK. MAPKKK signaling pathways relay, amplify and integrate signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli.

Autoglucosylation of GYG1 complexed with GYS1-a [GO_0008466]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + glycogenin = UDP + glucosylglycogenin.

autonomic nervous system development [GO_0048483]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the autonomic nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The autonomic nervous system is composed of neurons that are not under conscious control, and is comprised of two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The autonomic nervous system regulates key functions including the activity of the cardiac (heart) muscle, smooth muscles (e.g. of the gut), and glands.

Autophosphorylation of LYN kinase [GO_0004713]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein tyrosine = ADP + protein tyrosine phosphate.

AV node cell action potential [GO_0086016]

An action potential that occurs in an atrioventricular node cardiac muscle cell.

AV node cell to bundle of His cell communication [GO_0086067]

The process that mediates interactions between an AV node cell and its surroundings that contributes to the process of the AV node cell communicating with a bundle of His cell in cardiac conduction. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

AV node cell to bundle of His cell signaling [GO_0086027]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from an AV node cardiac muscle cell to a bundle of His cardiomyocyte.

axial mesoderm development [GO_0048318]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the axial mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The axial mesoderm includes the prechordal mesoderm and the chordamesoderm. It gives rise to the prechordal plate and to the notochord.

axial mesoderm formation [GO_0048320]

The process that gives rise to the axial mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

axial mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048319]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the axial mesoderm are generated and organized.

axis specification [GO_0009798]

The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of a pattern along a line or around a point.

axo-dendritic protein transport [GO_0099640]

The directed movement of proteins along microtubules in neuron projections.

axo-dendritic transport [GO_0008088]

The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules in neuron projections.

axon [GO_0030424]

The long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.

axon cytoplasm [GO_1904115]

Any cytoplasm that is part of a axon.

axon development [GO_0061564]

The progression of an axon over time. Covers axonogenesis (de novo generation of an axon) and axon regeneration (regrowth), as well as processes pertaining to the progression of the axon over time (fasciculation and defasciculation).

axon guidance [GO_0007411]

The chemotaxis process that directs the migration of an axon growth cone to a specific target site in response to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues.

axon guidance receptor activity [GO_0008046]

Combining with an extracellular messenger and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to results in a change in cellular activity involved in axon guidance.

axonal dopamine secretion [GO_0099124]

The regulated release of dopamine from an axon.

axonemal microtubule [GO_0005879]

A microtubule in the axoneme of a eukaryotic cilium or flagellum; an axoneme contains nine modified doublet microtubules, which may or may not surround a pair of single microtubules.

axonemal microtubule depolymerization [GO_0060404]

The removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of an axonemal microtubule. An axonemal microtubule is a microtubule in the axoneme of a cilium or flagellum; an axoneme contains nine modified doublet microtubules surrounding a pair of single microtubules.

axoneme [GO_0005930]

The bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the core of cilia (also called flagella) in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for their movements. Note that cilia and eukaryotic flagella are deemed to be equivalent. In diplomonad species, such as Giardia, the axoneme may extend intracellularly up to 5um away from the plane of the plasma membrane.

axoneme assembly [GO_0035082]

The assembly and organization of an axoneme, the bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the core of cilia (also called flagella) in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for their movements. Note that cilia and eukaryotic flagella are deemed to be equivalent.

axonogenesis [GO_0007409]

De novo generation of a long process of a neuron, including the terminal branched region. Refers to the morphogenesis or creation of shape or form of the developing axon, which carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. Note that ‘axonogenesis’ differs from ‘axon development’ in that the latter also covers other processes, such as axon regeneration (regrowth after loss or damage, not necessarily of the whole axon).

azole transmembrane transport [GO_0045117]

The directed movement of azoles, heterocyclic compounds found in many biologically important substances, across a lipid bilayer, across a membrane.

azole transmembrane transporter activity [GO_1901474]

Enables the directed movement of azoles, heterocyclic compound found in many biologically important substances, from one side of a membrane to the other.

B3GALTL transfers glucose to O-fucosyl-proteins [GO_0016757]

Catalysis of the transfer of a glycosyl group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

B4GALNT2 transfers GalNAc to Type 2 MSGG to form Sda [GO_0008376]

Catalysis of the transfer of an N-acetylgalactosaminyl residue from UDP-N-acetyl-galactosamine to an oligosaccharide.

backward locomotion [GO_0043057]

Posterior movement of an organism, e.g. following the direction of the tail of an animal.

Bacterial GUSB hydrolyses BDG to BIL [GO_0004553]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of any O-glycosyl bond.

banded collagen fibril [GO_0098643]

A supramolecular assembly of fibrillar collagen complexes in the form of a long fiber (fibril) with transverse striations (bands).

basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery binding [GO_0001099]

Binding to a component of the basal transcription machinery for RNA polymerase II which is composed of the RNA polymerase II core enzyme, a multisubunit eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerase typically composed of twelve subunits, and the basal RNA polymerase II transcription factors, the minimal set of factors required for formation of the preinitiation complex (PIC) by the RNA polymerase. Note that the definition of basal, or general, transcription factors has typically been done at a small number of well characterized activator-independent promoters. At an activator-dependent promoter, one or more additional factors are generally required in addition to the basal factors.

basal transcription machinery binding [GO_0001098]

Binding to a component of the basal transcription machinery which is composed of the RNA polymerase core enzyme and the basal transcription factor(s), the minimal set of factors required for formation of the preinitiation complex (PIC) by the RNA polymerase. Note that the definition of basal, or general, transcription factors has typically been done at a small number of well characterized activator-independent promoters. At an activator-dependent promoter, one or more additional factors are generally required in addition to the basal factors.

basement membrane [GO_0005604]

A collagen-containing extracellular matrix consisting of a thin layer of dense material found in various animal tissues interposed between the cells and the adjacent connective tissue. It consists of the basal lamina plus an associated layer of reticulin fibers. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane ; GO:0016020’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basement membrane assembly [GO_0070831]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a basement membrane, a part of the extracellular region that consists of a thin layer of dense material found in various animal tissues interposed between the cells and the adjacent connective tissue. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane assembly ; GO:0071709’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basement membrane collagen trimer [GO_0098651]

Any collagen timer that is part of a basement membrane.

basement membrane disassembly [GO_0034769]

The controlled breakdown of the basement membrane in the context of a normal process such as imaginal disc eversion. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane disassembly ; GO:0030397’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basement membrane organization [GO_0071711]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the basement membrane. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane organization ; GO:0061024’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basic amino acid transmembrane transport [GO_1990822]

The directed movement of basic amino acids from one side of a membrane to the other.

basic amino acid transport [GO_0015802]

The directed movement of basic amino acids, amino acids with a pH above 7, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

BBOX1:AscH-:Fe2+ dimer dioxygenates TEABT and 2OG to form CAR and SUCCA [GO_0008336]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-oxoglutarate + 4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate + O2 = carnitine + CO2 + succinate.

BCAP Signalosome phosphorylates PI(4,5)P2 forming PI(3,4,5)P3 [GO_0035004]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a phosphatidylinositol = ADP + a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. This reaction is the addition of a phosphate group to phosphatidylinositol or one of its phosphorylated derivatives at the 3' position of the inositol ring.

behavior [GO_0007610]

The internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of animals (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli, via a mechanism that involves nervous system activity. 1. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation reviews. 2. While a broader definition of behavior encompassing plants and single cell organisms would be justified on the basis of some usage (see PMID:20160973 for discussion), GO uses a tight definition that limits behavior to animals and to responses involving the nervous system, excluding plant responses that GO classifies under development, and responses of unicellular organisms that has general classifications for covering the responses of cells in multicellular organisms (e.g. cell chemotaxis).

behavioral response to nutrient [GO_0051780]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a nutrient stimulus.

behavioral response to pain [GO_0048266]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a pain stimulus. Pain stimuli cause activation of nociceptors, peripheral receptors for pain, include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli.

behavioral response to starvation [GO_0042595]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of deprivation of nourishment.

benzene-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0042537]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving benzene, C6H6, a volatile, very inflammable liquid, contained in the naphtha produced by the destructive distillation of coal, from which it is separated by fractional distillation, or any of its derivatives.

beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase activity [GO_0048531]

Catalysis of the transfer of a galactose residue from a donor molecule to an oligosaccharide, forming a beta-1,3-linkage.

beta-1,4-mannosyltransferase activity [GO_0019187]

Catalysis of the transfer of a mannose residue to an oligosaccharide, forming a beta-(1->4) linkage.

beta-alanyl-dopamine hydrolase activity [GO_0003832]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-beta-alanyl dopamine + H2O = dopamine + beta-alanine.

beta-alanyl-histamine hydrolase activity [GO_0031964]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-beta-alanyl histamine + H2O = histamine + beta-alanine.

beta-catenin binding [GO_0008013]

Binding to a catenin beta subunit.

beta-catenin destruction complex binding [GO_1904713]

Binding to a beta-catenin destruction complex.

beta-galactosidase activity [GO_0004565]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides. Note that the inclusion of ‘MetaCyc:BGALACT-PWY’ is exceptional: normally MetaCyc pathway entries are database references for biological process terms, not molecular function terms. An exception was made in this case because the MetaCyc entry ‘BGALACT-PWY’ describes only one reaction, that catalyzed by beta-galactosidase.

beta-glucosidase activity [GO_0008422]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-glucose residues with release of beta-D-glucose.

beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA + H2O => beta-hydroxyisobutyrate + CoA [GO_0003860]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoyl-CoA + H2O = CoA + 3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoate.

beta-mannosidase activity [GO_0004567]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides.

beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity [GO_0016231]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminides.

beta-tubulin binding [GO_0048487]

Binding to the microtubule constituent protein beta-tubulin.

beta-ureidoisobutyrate + H2O => 3-aminoisobutyrate + NH4+ + CO2 [GO_0003837]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-carbamoyl-beta-alanine + H2O = beta-alanine + CO2 + NH3.

bHLH transcription factor binding [GO_0043425]

Binding to a basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors, important regulatory components in transcriptional networks of many developmental pathways.

bicarbonate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015106]

Enables the transfer of bicarbonate from one side of a membrane to the other. Bicarbonate is the hydrogencarbonate ion, HCO3-.

bicarbonate transport [GO_0015701]

The directed movement of bicarbonate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

bidentate ribonuclease III activity [GO_0016443]

Catalysis of the digestion of double-stranded RNAs into 20 to 30-nucleotide products. These products typically associate to the RNA-induced silencing complex and serve as guide RNAs for posttranslational RNA interference.

bile acid and bile salt transport [GO_0015721]

The directed movement of bile acid and bile salts into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

bile acid biosynthetic process [GO_0006699]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of bile acids, any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile.

bile acid catabolic process [GO_0030573]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of bile acids, any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile.

bile acid metabolic process [GO_0008206]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving bile acids, a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile, where they are present as the sodium salts of their amides with glycine or taurine.

bile acid secretion [GO_0032782]

The regulated release of bile acid, composed of any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile, by a cell or a tissue.

bilirubin transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015127]

Enables the transfer of bilirubin from one side of a membrane to the other. Bilirubin is a linear tetrapyrrole produced in the reticuloendothelial system from biliverdin and transported to the liver as a complex with serum albumin. In the liver, bilirubin is converted to bilirubin bisglucuronide, which is excreted in the bile.

bilirubin transport [GO_0015723]

The directed movement of bilirubin into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

biliverdin reductase (NAD(P)+) activity [GO_0004074]

Catalysis of the reaction: bilirubin + NAD(P)+ = biliverdin + NAD(P)H + H+.

binding [GO_0005488]

The selective, non-covalent, often stoichiometric, interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct, manual gene product annotation. Please choose a more specific child term, or request a new one if no suitable term is available. For ligands that bind to signal transducing receptors, consider the molecular function term ‘receptor binding ; GO:0005102’ and its children.

biological adhesion [GO_0022610]

The attachment of a cell or organism to a substrate, another cell, or other organism. Biological adhesion includes intracellular attachment between membrane regions.

biological phase [GO_0044848]

A distinct period or stage in a biological process or cycle. Note that phases are is_a disjoint from other biological processes. happens_during relationships can operate between phases and other biological processes e.g. DNA replication happens_during S phase.

biological process involved in interspecies interaction between organisms [GO_0044419]

Any process evolved to enable an interaction with an organism of a different species.

biological regulation [GO_0065007]

Any process that modulates a measurable attribute of any biological process, quality or function.

biological_process [GO_0008150]

A biological process represents a specific objective that the organism is genetically programmed to achieve. Biological processes are often described by their outcome or ending state, e.g., the biological process of cell division results in the creation of two daughter cells (a divided cell) from a single parent cell. A biological process is accomplished by a particular set of molecular functions carried out by specific gene products (or macromolecular complexes), often in a highly regulated manner and in a particular temporal sequence. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. Note that when this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ND, no data, is used to indicate this. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this.

biosynthetic process [GO_0009058]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances; typically the energy-requiring part of metabolism in which simpler substances are transformed into more complex ones.

BIR domain binding [GO_1990525]

Binding to a Baculovirus Inhibitor of apoptosis protein Repeat (BIR) domain. An example of this is the Drosophila reaper gene in PMID:21886178.

bis(5'-adenosyl)-hexaphosphatase activity [GO_0034431]

Catalysis of the reaction: P1-P6-bis(5'-adenosyl) hexaphosphate + H2O = AMP + adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate.

bis(5'-adenosyl)-pentaphosphatase activity [GO_0034432]

Catalysis of the reaction: P1-P6-bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphate + H2O = AMP + adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate.

bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphatase activity [GO_0034417]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2,3-diphosphoglycerate + H2O = 2-phospho-D-glycerate + phosphate.

bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity [GO_0034416]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2,3-diphosphoglycerate + H2O = phosphoglycerate + phosphate.

blastocyst development [GO_0001824]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the blastocyst over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mammalian blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells containing two cell types, the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. See also the Anatomical Dictionary for Mouse Development ontology terms ‘TS5, embryo ; EMAP:23’, ‘TS5, inner cell mass ; EMAP:24’ and ‘TS5, trophectoderm; EMAP:28’.

blastocyst formation [GO_0001825]

The initial formation of a blastocyst from a solid ball of cells known as a morula. See also the Anatomical Dictionary for Mouse Development ontology term ‘TS3, compacted morula ; EMAP:9’.

blastocyst growth [GO_0001832]

An increase in size of a blastocyst due to expansion of the blastocoelic cavity cell shape changes and cell proliferation. See also the Anatomical Dictionary for Mouse Development ontology terms ‘TS4, blastocoelic cavity ; EMAP:17’, ‘TS5, blastocoelic cavity ; EMAP:27’ and ‘TS6, blastocoelic cavity ; EMAP:36’.

bleb [GO_0032059]

A cell extension caused by localized decoupling of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane and characterized by rapid formation, rounded shape, and scarcity of organelles within the protrusion. Blebs are formed during apoptosis and other cellular processes, including cell locomotion, cell division, and as a result of physical or chemical stresses.

bleb assembly [GO_0032060]

The assembly of a bleb, a cell extension caused by localized decoupling of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane and characterized by rapid formation, rounded shape, and scarcity of organelles within the protrusion. Plasma membrane blebbing occurs during apoptosis and other cellular processes, including cell locomotion, cell division, and as a result of physical or chemical stresses.

blood circulation [GO_0008015]

The flow of blood through the body of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products.

blood vessel development [GO_0001568]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0060837]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a blood vessel endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell that lines the inside surfaces of blood vessels.

blood vessel maturation [GO_0001955]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a blood vessel to attain its fully functional state.

blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_0048514]

The process in which the anatomical structures of blood vessels are generated and organized. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

blue light photoreceptor activity [GO_0009882]

The function of absorbing and responding to electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of approximately 400-470nm. The response may involve a change in conformation.

blue light signaling pathway [GO_0009785]

The series of molecular signals initiated upon sensing of blue light by photoreceptor molecule, at a wavelength between 400nm and 470nm.

BMP binding [GO_0036122]

Binding to a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family.

BMP receptor activity [GO_0098821]

Combining with a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, and transmitting a signal across the plasma membrane to initiate a change in cell activity.

BMP receptor binding [GO_0070700]

Binding to a BMP receptor.

BMP signaling pathway [GO_0030509]

The series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a member of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) family to a receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

body fluid secretion [GO_0007589]

The controlled release of a fluid by a cell or tissue in an animal.

body morphogenesis [GO_0010171]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the soma are generated and organized.

bone cell development [GO_0098751]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a bone cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. Not to be used for manual annotation. Please choose a more specific cell development term or if not possible, bone or bone tissue development.

bone development [GO_0060348]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of bone over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Bone is the hard skeletal connective tissue consisting of both mineral and cellular components.

bone growth [GO_0098868]

The increase in size or mass of a bone that contributes to the shaping of that bone.

bone marrow development [GO_0048539]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the bone marrow over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

bone maturation [GO_0070977]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for bone to attain its fully functional state.

bone morphogenesis [GO_0060349]

The process in which bones are generated and organized.

bounding membrane of organelle [GO_0098588]

The lipid bilayer that forms the outer-most layer of an organelle. Examples include the outer membranes of double membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria as well as the bounding membranes of single-membrane bound organelles such as lysosomes.

box H/ACA snoRNA binding [GO_0034513]

Binding to a box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA.

brain development [GO_0007420]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the brain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Brain development begins with patterning events in the neural tube and ends with the mature structure that is the center of thought and emotion. The brain is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.).

brain morphogenesis [GO_0048854]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the brain are generated and organized. The brain is one of the two components of the central nervous system and is the center of thought and emotion. It is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.).

brainstem development [GO_0003360]

The progression of the brainstem from its formation to the mature structure. The brainstem is the part of the brain that connects the brain with the spinal cord.

branched-chain amino acid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015658]

Enables the transfer of branched-chain amino acids from one side of a membrane to the other. Branched-chain amino acids are amino acids with a branched carbon skeleton without rings.

branched-chain amino acid transport [GO_0015803]

The directed movement of branched-chain amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Branched-chain amino acids are amino acids with a branched carbon skeleton without rings.

branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase activity [GO_0004084]

Catalysis of the reaction: a branched-chain amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + a 2-oxocarboxylate derived from the branched-chain amino acid.

branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_0001569]

The process of coordinated growth and sprouting of blood vessels giving rise to the organized vascular system.

branching involved in labyrinthine layer morphogenesis [GO_0060670]

The process in which the branches of the fetal placental villi are generated and organized. The villous part of the placenta is called the labyrinth layer.

branching involved in pancreas morphogenesis [GO_0061114]

The process in which the branches of the pancreas are generated and organized.

branching morphogenesis of a nerve [GO_0048755]

The process in which the anatomical structures of branches in a nerve are generated and organized. This term refers to an anatomical structure (nerve) not a cell (neuron).

branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube [GO_0048754]

The process in which the anatomical structures of branches in an epithelial tube are generated and organized. A tube is a long hollow cylinder.

bronchiole development [GO_0060435]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a bronchiole from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the bronchiole and ends with the mature structure. A bronchiole is the first airway branch that no longer contains cartilage; it is a branch of the bronchi.

bronchiole morphogenesis [GO_0060436]

The process in which a bronchiole is generated and organized. A bronchiole is the first airway branch that no longer contains cartilage; it is a branch of the bronchi.

bronchus cartilage development [GO_0060532]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of lung cartilage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage is a connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.

bronchus cartilage morphogenesis [GO_0060533]

The process in which the bronchus cartilage is generated and organized. The bronchus cartilage is the connective tissue of the portion of the airway that connects to the lungs.

bronchus development [GO_0060433]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a bronchus from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the bronchus and ends with the mature structure. The bronchus is the portion of the airway that connects to the lungs.

bronchus morphogenesis [GO_0060434]

The process in which the bronchus is generated and organized. The bronchus is the portion of the airway that connects to the lungs.

Btn-ACACA:2Mn2+ polymer carboxylates Ac-CoA to form Mal-CoA [GO_0003989]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO3- = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.

Butyrylcholinesterase hydrolyzes acyl Ghrelin [GO_0016788]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of any ester bond.

C-acetyltransferase activity [GO_0016453]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acetyl group to a carbon atom on the acceptor molecule.

C-acyltransferase activity [GO_0016408]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group to a carbon atom on the acceptor molecule.

C-palmitoyltransferase activity [GO_0016454]

Catalysis of the transfer of a palmitoyl group to a carbon atom on the acceptor molecule.

C4-dicarboxylate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015556]

Enables the transfer of C4-dicarboxylate from one side of a membrane to the other.

C4-dicarboxylate transport [GO_0015740]

The directed movement of a C4-dicarboxylate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. A C4-dicarboxylate is the anion of a dicarboxylic acid that contains four carbon atoms.

Ca2+ influx into the post-synaptic cell [GO_0005231]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens when a specific extracellular ligand has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts, where channel opening contributes to an increase in membrane potential.

CAAX-protein geranylgeranyltransferase activity [GO_0004662]

Catalysis of the reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + protein-cysteine = S-geranylgeranyl-protein + diphosphate. This reaction is the formation of a thioether linkage between the C-1 atom of the geranylgeranyl group and a cysteine residue fourth from the C-terminus of the protein. The protein substrates have the C-terminal sequence CA1A2X, where the terminal residue, X, is preferably leucine and A2 should not be aromatic. Known substrates include most g-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and Ras-related GTPases such as members of the Ras and Rac/Rho families.

cadherin binding [GO_0045296]

Binding to cadherin, a type I membrane protein involved in cell adhesion.

cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion [GO_0098641]

Any cadherin binding that occurs as part of the process of cell-cell adhesion.

cadmium ion transmembrane transport [GO_0070574]

A process in which a cadmium ion is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

cadmium ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015086]

Enables the transfer of cadmium (Cd) ions from one side of a membrane to the other.

cadmium ion transport [GO_0015691]

The directed movement of cadmium (Cd) ions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

CAIR + Aspartate + ATP => SAICAR + ADP + Pi [GO_0004639]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-aspartate + ATP = (2S)-2-[5-amino-1-(5-phospho-beta-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido]succinate + ADP + 2 H+ + phosphate.

calcitonin binding [GO_0032841]

Binding to calcitonin, a peptide hormone responsible for reducing serum calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclastic bone reabsorption and promoting renal calcium excretion. It is synthesized and released by the C cells of the thyroid.

calcitonin family binding [GO_0097644]

Binding to a member of the calcitonin family (e.g. adrenomedullin, adrenomedullin 2 (intermedin), amylin, calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs)).

calcitonin family receptor activity [GO_0097642]

Combining with any member of the calcitonin family (e.g. adrenomedullin, adrenomedullin 2 (intermedin), amylin, calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs)) to initiate a change in cell activity.

calcitonin receptor activity [GO_0004948]

Combining with calcitonin and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

calcium activated cation channel activity [GO_0005227]

Enables the calcium concentration-regulatable energy-independent passage of cations across a lipid bilayer down a concentration gradient.

calcium channel inhibitor activity [GO_0019855]

Binds to and stops, prevents, or reduces the activity of a calcium channel.

calcium channel regulator activity [GO_0005246]

Modulates the activity of a calcium channel.

Calcium Influx through Voltage-gated Calcium Channels [GO_0005245]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a calcium ion by a voltage-gated channel. A voltage-gated channel is a channel whose open state is dependent on the voltage across the membrane in which it is embedded.

calcium ion binding [GO_0005509]

Binding to a calcium ion (Ca2+).

calcium ion homeostasis [GO_0055074]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of calcium ions within an organism or cell.

calcium ion transmembrane import into cytosol [GO_0097553]

A process in which a calcium ion is transported from one side of a membrane to the other into the cytosol by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

calcium ion transmembrane transport [GO_0070588]

A process in which a calcium ion is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

calcium ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015085]

Enables the transfer of calcium (Ca) ions from one side of a membrane to the other.

calcium ion transport [GO_0006816]

The directed movement of calcium (Ca) ions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

calcium sensitive guanylate cyclase activator activity [GO_0008048]

Binds to and increases the activity of guanylate cyclase in response to a change in calcium ion concentration.

calcium- and calmodulin-responsive adenylate cyclase activity [GO_0008294]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP = 3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate, stimulated by calcium-bound calmodulin.

calcium-activated potassium channel activity [GO_0015269]

Enables the calcium concentration-regulatable energy-independent passage of potassium ions across a lipid bilayer down a concentration gradient.

calcium-dependent ATPase activity [GO_0030899]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate. This reaction requires the presence of calcium ion (Ca2+).

calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity [GO_0047498]

Catalysis of the reaction: phosphatidylcholine + H2O = 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate. This reaction requires Ca2+.

calcium-dependent phospholipid binding [GO_0005544]

Binding to a phospholipid, a class of lipids containing phosphoric acid as a mono- or diester, in the presence of calcium.

calcium-dependent protein binding [GO_0048306]

Binding to a protein or protein complex in the presence of calcium.

calcium-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity [GO_0008427]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a calcium-dependent protein kinase.

calcium-dependent protein kinase regulator activity [GO_0010858]

Modulates the activity of a calcium-dependent protein kinase, an enzyme which phosphorylates a protein in a calcium-dependent manner.

calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO_0009931]

Calcium-dependent catalysis of the reactions: ATP + a protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate; and ATP + a protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate. These reactions are dependent on the presence of calcium ions.

calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity [GO_0004723]

Catalysis of the reactions: protein serine phosphate + H2O = protein serine + phosphate; and protein threonine phosphate + H2O = protein threonine + phosphate. These reactions require the presence of calcium ions.

calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase regulator activity [GO_0008597]

Binds to and modulates of the activity of the enzyme calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase.

calcium-induced calcium release activity [GO_0048763]

Enables transmembrane transfer of calcium ions from an intracellular store to the cytosol on induction by increased calcium concentration.

calcium-mediated signaling [GO_0019722]

Any intracellular signal transduction in which the signal is passed on within the cell via calcium ions.

calcium-release channel activity [GO_0015278]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a calcium ion from intracellular stores by a channel that opens when a specific intracellular ligand has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

calmodulin binding [GO_0005516]

Binding to calmodulin, a calcium-binding protein with many roles, both in the calcium-bound and calcium-free states.

calmodulin dependent kinase signaling pathway [GO_0099004]

Any signal transduction pathway involving calmodulin dependent kinase activity.

calmodulin-activated 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity [GO_0048101]

Catalysis of the reactions: nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic GMP + H2O = GMP + H+; this activity is activated by binding to calcium-bound calmodulin.

calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase activity [GO_0033192]

Catalysis of the reaction: protein serine/threonine phosphate + H2O = protein serine/threonine + phosphate, dependent on the presence of calcium-bound calmodulin.

Calpain cleaves p35 to p25 [GO_0004198]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of nonterminal peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a mechanism using a cysteine residue at the enzyme active center, and requiring the presence of calcium.

camera-type eye development [GO_0043010]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the camera-type eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The camera-type eye is an organ of sight that receives light through an aperture and focuses it through a lens, projecting it on a photoreceptor field.

camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO_0048593]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized. The camera-type eye is an organ of sight that receives light through an aperture and focuses it through a lens, projecting it on a photoreceptor field.

camera-type eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0060219]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell in a camera-type eye.

CaMKK phosphorylates CAMK4 [GO_0004683]

Calmodulin-dependent catalysis of the reactions: ATP + a protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate; and ATP + a protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate. These reactions require the presence of calcium-bound calmodulin.

cAMP binding [GO_0030552]

Binding to cAMP, the nucleotide cyclic AMP (adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate).

cAMP response element binding [GO_0035497]

Binding to a cyclic AMP response element (CRE), a short palindrome-containing sequence found in the promoters of genes whose expression is regulated in response to cyclic AMP.

cAMP response element binding protein binding [GO_0008140]

Binding to a cAMP response element binding protein (a CREB protein).

cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity [GO_0004691]

cAMP-dependent catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. This reaction requires the presence of cAMP.

cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity [GO_0008603]

Modulation of the activity of the enzyme cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

cAMP-mediated signaling [GO_0019933]

Any intracellular signal transduction in which the signal is passed on within the cell via cyclic AMP (cAMP). Includes production of cAMP, and downstream effectors that further transmit the signal within the cell.

Cap-bound mRNA is activated by helicases [GO_0003724]

Unwinding of an RNA helix, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

carbohydrate binding [GO_0030246]

Binding to a carbohydrate, which includes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides as well as substances derived from monosaccharides by reduction of the carbonyl group (alditols), by oxidation of one or more hydroxy groups to afford the corresponding aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids, or by replacement of one or more hydroxy group(s) by a hydrogen atom. Cyclitols are generally not regarded as carbohydrates.

carbohydrate biosynthetic process [GO_0016051]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

carbohydrate catabolic process [GO_0016052]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

carbohydrate derivative binding [GO_0097367]

Binding to a carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative biosynthetic process [GO_1901137]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative catabolic process [GO_1901136]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative metabolic process [GO_1901135]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative transmembrane transporter activity [GO_1901505]

Enables the transfer of carbohydrate derivative from one side of a membrane to the other.

carbohydrate derivative transport [GO_1901264]

The directed movement of a carbohydrate derivative into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

carbohydrate homeostasis [GO_0033500]

A homeostatic process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of a carbohydrate within an organism or cell.

carbohydrate kinase activity [GO_0019200]

Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a carbohydrate substrate molecule.

carbohydrate metabolic process [GO_0005975]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule.

carbohydrate phosphorylation [GO_0046835]

The process of introducing a phosphate group into a carbohydrate, any organic compound based on the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

carbohydrate transmembrane transport [GO_0034219]

The process in which a carbohydrate is transported across a membrane. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

carbohydrate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015144]

Enables the transfer of carbohydrate from one side of a membrane to the other.

carbohydrate transport [GO_0008643]

The directed movement of carbohydrate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carbohydrates are a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

carbohydrate:cation symporter activity [GO_0005402]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: sugar(out) + cation(out) = sugar(in) + cation(in).

carbohydrate:proton symporter activity [GO_0005351]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: carbohydrate(out) + H+(out) = carbohydrate(in) + H+(in).

carbon-halide lyase activity [GO_0016848]

Catalysis of the breakage of a bond between carbon and any halogen atom.

carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor [GO_0016884]

Catalysis of the transfer of the amide nitrogen of glutamine to a substrate. Usually composed of two subunits or domains, one that first hydrolyzes glutamine, and then transfers the resulting ammonia to the second subunit (or domain), where it acts as a source of nitrogen.

carbon-nitrogen lyase activity [GO_0016840]

Catalysis of the release of ammonia or one of its derivatives, with the formation of a double bond or ring. Enzymes with this activity may catalyze the actual elimination of the ammonia, amine or amide, e.g. CH-CH(-NH-R) = C=CH- + NH2-R. Others, however, catalyze elimination of another component, e.g. water, which is followed by spontaneous reactions that lead to breakage of the C-N bond, e.g. L-serine ammonia-lyase (EC:4.3.1.17), so that the overall reaction is C(-OH)-CH(-NH2) = CH2-CO- + NH3, i.e. an elimination with rearrangement. The sub-subclasses of EC:4.3 are the ammonia-lyases (EC:4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (EC:4.3.2), the amine-lyases (EC:4.3.3), and other carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC:4.3.99).

carbon-oxygen lyase activity [GO_0016835]

Catalysis of the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond.

carbon-oxygen lyase activity, acting on phosphates [GO_0016838]

Catalysis of the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by elimination of a phosphate.

carbon-sulfur lyase activity [GO_0016846]

Catalysis of the elimination of hydrogen sulfide or substituted H2S.

Carbonic anhydrase dehydrates bicarbonate (cytosol) [GO_0004089]

Catalysis of the reaction: H2CO3 = CO2 + H2O.

carbonyl reductase (NADPH) activity [GO_0004090]

Catalysis of the reaction: R-CHOH-R' + NADP+ = R-CO-R' + NADPH + H+.

carboxyl-O-methyltransferase activity [GO_0010340]

Catalysis of the transfer of a methyl group to the carboxyl group of an acceptor molecule to form a methyl ester.

carboxylic acid binding [GO_0031406]

Binding to a carboxylic acid, an organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

carboxylic acid biosynthetic process [GO_0046394]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.

carboxylic acid catabolic process [GO_0046395]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.

carboxylic acid metabolic process [GO_0019752]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

carboxylic acid transmembrane transport [GO_1905039]

The process in which carboxylic acid is transported across a membrane.

carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0046943]

Enables the transfer of carboxylic acids from one side of a membrane to the other. Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

carboxylic acid transport [GO_0046942]

The directed movement of carboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

carcinine transmembrane transporter activity [GO_1905131]

Enables the transfer of carcinine from one side of a membrane to the other.

CARD domain binding [GO_0050700]

Binding to a CARD (N-terminal caspase recruitment) domain, a protein-protein interaction domain that belongs to the death domain-fold superfamily. These protein molecule families are similar in structure with each consisting of six or seven anti-parallel alpha-helices that form highly specific homophilic interactions between signaling partners. CARD exists in the N-terminal prodomains of several caspases and in apoptosis-regulatory proteins and mediates the assembly of CARD-containing proteins that participate in activation or suppression of CARD carrying members of the caspase family.

cardiac atrium development [GO_0003230]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac atrium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.

cardiac atrium formation [GO_0003210]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac atrium from unspecified parts. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.

cardiac atrium morphogenesis [GO_0003209]

The process in which the cardiac atrium is generated and organized. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.

cardiac blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0060946]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a blood vessel endothelial cell of the heart. Blood vessel endothelial cells are thin flattened cells that line the inside surfaces of blood vessels.

cardiac cell development [GO_0055006]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. A cardiac cell is a cell that will form part of the cardiac organ of an individual.

cardiac chamber development [GO_0003205]

The progression of a cardiac chamber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.

cardiac chamber formation [GO_0003207]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac chamber from unspecified parts. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.

cardiac chamber morphogenesis [GO_0003206]

The process in which a cardiac chamber is generated and organized. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.

cardiac conduction [GO_0061337]

Transfer of an organized electrical impulse across the heart to coordinate the contraction of cardiac muscles. The process begins with generation of an action potential (in the sinoatrial node (SA) in humans) and ends with a change in the rate, frequency, or extent of the contraction of the heart muscles.

cardiac conduction system development [GO_0003161]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cardiac conduction system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cardiac conduction system consists of specialized cardiomyocytes that regulate the frequency of heart beat.

cardiac endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0003348]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardiac endothelial cell.

cardiac fibroblast cell development [GO_0060936]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac fibroblast over time, from its formation to the mature state. A cardiac fibroblast is a connective tissue cell of the heart which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

cardiac fibroblast cell differentiation [GO_0060935]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardiac fibroblast. A cardiac fibroblast is a connective tissue cell in the heart which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

cardiac glial cell development [GO_0060952]

The process aimed at the progression of a cardiac glial cell over time, from its formation to the fully functional mature cell.

cardiac glial cell differentiation [GO_0060950]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a glial cell of the heart.

cardiac left atrium formation [GO_0003216]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a left cardiac atrium from unspecified parts.

cardiac left atrium morphogenesis [GO_0003212]

The process in which the left cardiac atrium is generated and organized.

cardiac left ventricle formation [GO_0003218]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a left cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts.

cardiac left ventricle morphogenesis [GO_0003214]

The process in which the left cardiac ventricle is generated and organized.

cardiac muscle adaptation [GO_0014887]

The process in which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.

cardiac muscle cell action potential [GO_0086001]

An action potential that occurs in a cardiac muscle cell.

cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010659]

A form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases, whose actions dismantle a cardiac muscle cell and result in its death. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction.

cardiac muscle cell development [GO_0055013]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac muscle cell over time, from its formation to the mature state.

cardiac muscle cell differentiation [GO_0055007]

The process in which a cardiac muscle precursor cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac muscle cell. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction.

cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation [GO_0060379]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac myoblast. A cardiac myoblast is a precursor cell that has been committed to a cardiac muscle cell fate but retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life.

cardiac muscle cell proliferation [GO_0060038]

The expansion of a cardiac muscle cell population by cell division.

cardiac muscle contraction [GO_0060048]

Muscle contraction of cardiac muscle tissue.

cardiac muscle hypertrophy [GO_0003300]

The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart muscle due to an increase in size of cardiac muscle cells without cell division.

cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation [GO_0110021]

The multiplication or reproduction of cardiac muscle myoblasts, resulting in the expansion of a cardiac muscle myoblast cell population. A cardiac myoblast is a precursor cell that has been committed to a cardiac muscle cell fate but retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life.

cardiac muscle tissue development [GO_0048738]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of cardiac muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

cardiac muscle tissue growth [GO_0055017]

The increase in size or mass of a cardiac muscle, where the increase in size or mass has the specific outcome of the progression of the organism over time from one condition to another.

cardiac muscle tissue growth involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0003245]

The developmental growth of cardiac muscle tissue that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0055008]

The process in which the anatomical structures of cardiac muscle tissue are generated and organized.

cardiac myofibril [GO_0097512]

A cardiac myofibril is a myofibril specific to cardiac muscle cells.

cardiac myofibril assembly [GO_0055003]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cardiac myofibril over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac myofibril is a myofibril specific to cardiac muscle cells.

cardiac neural crest cell development involved in heart development [GO_0061308]

The process aimed at the progression of a cardiac neural crest cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell that contributes to the development of the heart.

cardiac neural crest cell development involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0061309]

The process aimed at the progression of a cardiac neural crest cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell that contributes to the shaping of the outflow tract.

cardiac neural crest cell differentiation involved in heart development [GO_0061307]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac neural crest cell that will migrate to the heart and contribute to its development. Cardiac neural crest cells are specialized cells that migrate toward the heart from the third, fourth and sixth pharyngeal arches.

cardiac neuron development [GO_0060959]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac neuron over time, from its formation to the mature state.

cardiac neuron differentiation [GO_0060945]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron of the heart.

cardiac pacemaker cell development [GO_0060926]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a pacemaker cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. Pacemaker cells are specialized cardiomyocytes that are responsible for regulating the timing of heart contractions.

cardiac pacemaker cell differentiation [GO_0060920]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a pacemaker cell. Pacemaker cells are specialized cardiomyocytes that are responsible for regulating the timing of heart contractions.

cardiac right atrium formation [GO_0003217]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac right atrium from unspecified parts.

cardiac right atrium morphogenesis [GO_0003213]

The process in which the right cardiac atrium is generated and organized.

cardiac right ventricle formation [GO_0003219]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a right cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts.

cardiac right ventricle morphogenesis [GO_0003215]

The process in which the right cardiac ventricle is generated and organized.

cardiac septum cell differentiation [GO_0003292]

The process in which an endocardial cushion cell becomes a cell of a cardiac septum.

cardiac septum development [GO_0003279]

The progression of a cardiac septum over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure.

cardiac septum morphogenesis [GO_0060411]

The process in which the anatomical structure of a cardiac septum is generated and organized. A cardiac septum is a partition that separates parts of the heart.

cardiac skeleton development [GO_0003204]

The progression of the cardiac skeleton over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cardiac skeleton is a specialized extracellular matrix that separates the atria from the ventricles and provides physical support for the heart.

cardiac ventricle development [GO_0003231]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac ventricle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.

cardiac ventricle formation [GO_0003211]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.

cardiac ventricle morphogenesis [GO_0003208]

The process in which the cardiac ventricle is generated and organized. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.

cardioblast differentiation [GO_0010002]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.

cardiocyte differentiation [GO_0035051]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cell that will form part of the cardiac organ of an individual.

cardiogenic plate morphogenesis [GO_0003142]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the cardiogenic plate are generated and organized. The cardiogenic plate is the first recognizable structure derived from the heart field.

cargo adaptor activity [GO_0140312]

Binding directly to the structural scaffolding elements of a vesicle coat (such as clathrin or COPII), and bridging the membrane, cargo receptor, and membrane deformation machinery.

carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity [GO_0004092]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + carnitine = (R)-O-acetylcarnitine + CoA.

carnitine O-acyltransferase activity [GO_0016406]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group to an oxygen atom on the carnitine molecule.

cartilage development [GO_0051216]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cartilage element over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage elements are skeletal elements that consist of connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.

cartilage development involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0060351]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cartilage that will provide a scaffold for mineralization of endochondral bones.

cartilage morphogenesis [GO_0060536]

The process in which the anatomical structures of cartilage are generated and organized.

caspase binding [GO_0089720]

Binding to a caspase family protein.

catabolic process [GO_0009056]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.

catalytic activity [GO_0003824]

Catalysis of a biochemical reaction at physiological temperatures. In biologically catalyzed reactions, the reactants are known as substrates, and the catalysts are naturally occurring macromolecular substances known as enzymes. Enzymes possess specific binding sites for substrates, and are usually composed wholly or largely of protein, but RNA that has catalytic activity (ribozyme) is often also regarded as enzymatic.

catalytic activity, acting on a glycoprotein [GO_0140103]

Catalysis of a biochemical reaction at physiological temperatures in which one of the substrates is a glycoprotein.

catalytic activity, acting on a nucleic acid [GO_0140640]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a nucleic acid.

catalytic activity, acting on a protein [GO_0140096]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a protein.

catalytic activity, acting on a rRNA [GO_0140102]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a ribosomal RNA.

catalytic activity, acting on a tRNA [GO_0140101]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a tRNA.

catalytic activity, acting on DNA [GO_0140097]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify DNA.

catalytic activity, acting on RNA [GO_0140098]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify RNA, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

catalytic complex [GO_1902494]

A protein complex which is capable of catalytic activity.

catechol oxidase activity [GO_0004097]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2 L-dopa + O2 = 2 H2O + 2 L-dopaquinone. This reaction catalyzes exclusively the oxidation of catechols (i.e., o-diphenols) to the corresponding o-quinones. GO:0004097 describes oxidation of catechols (i.e., o-diphenols) to the corresponding o-quinones. For monooxygenation of monophenols, consider instead the term ‘monophenol monooxygenase activity ; GO:0004503’.

catechol-containing compound biosynthetic process [GO_0009713]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of catechol-containing compounds. Catechol is a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.

catechol-containing compound catabolic process [GO_0019614]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of catechol-containing compounds. Catechol is a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.

catechol-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0009712]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a compound containing a pyrocatechol (1,2-benzenediol) nucleus or substituent.

catecholamine binding [GO_1901338]

Binding to catecholamine.

catecholamine biosynthetic process [GO_0042423]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine catabolic process [GO_0042424]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine metabolic process [GO_0006584]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine secretion [GO_0050432]

The regulated release of catecholamines by a cell. The catecholamines are a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0160043]

The regulated release of catecholamine by a cell in which the catecholamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

catecholamine transport [GO_0051937]

The directed movement of catecholamines, a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine uptake [GO_0090493]

The directed movement of catecholamine into a cell.

cation binding [GO_0043169]

Binding to a cation, a charged atom or group of atoms with a net positive charge.

cation efflux transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0046583]

Enables the transfer of a cation or cations from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell across a membrane.

cation homeostasis [GO_0055080]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of cations within an organism or cell.

cation transmembrane transport [GO_0098655]

The process in which a cation is transported across a membrane.

cation transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0008324]

Enables the transfer of cation from one side of a membrane to the other.

cation transport [GO_0006812]

The directed movement of cations, atoms or small molecules with a net positive charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

cation:chloride symporter activity [GO_0015377]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: cation(out) + Cl-(out) = cation(in) + Cl-(in).

CCR4-NOT complex binding [GO_1905762]

Binding to a CCR4-NOT complex.

CD27 receptor binding [GO_0005175]

Binding to a CD27, a receptor found on the surface of T cells and some B cells and NK cells.

CD320 transports extracellular TCII:Cbl to endosome [GO_0038024]

Binding specifically to a substance (cargo) to deliver it to a transport vesicle. Cargo receptors span a membrane (either the plasma membrane or a vesicle membrane), binding simultaneously to cargo molecules and coat adaptors, to efficiently recruit soluble proteins to nascent vesicles. Notes: (1) this term and its child terms are intended for receptors that bind to and internalize molecules by receptor-mediated endocytosis. For receptors that are coupled to a signal transduction pathway, consider instead the term ‘signaling receptor activity ; GO:0038023’ and its children. (2) Cargo receptors transport substances by vesicular transport, not by transmembrane transport. For transmembrane transporters, consider instead the term ‘transmembrane transporter activity ; GO:0022857.

CD38 hydrolyses NAD+ to NAM and ADP-ribose [GO_0003953]

Catalysis of the reaction: NAD+ + H2O = nicotinamide + ADP-ribose.

CD4 biosynthetic process [GO_0045222]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CD4, a CD marker that occurs on T-helper cells and is involved in MHC class II restricted interactions.

CDK12 phosphorylates RNA Pol II CTD at DNA repair genes [GO_0004693]

Cyclin-dependent catalysis of the reactions: ATP + protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate. This reaction requires the binding of a regulatory cyclin subunit and full activity requires stimulatory phosphorylation by a CDK-activating kinase (CAK).

CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase activity [GO_0017169]

Catalysis of the reaction: CDP + alcohol = CMP + phosphatidyl alcohol.

CDP-choline pathway [GO_0006657]

The phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process that begins with the phosphorylation of choline and ends with the combination of CDP-choline with diacylglycerol to form phosphatidylcholine.

CDP-DAG is converted to PI by CDIPT [GO_0003881]

Catalysis of the reaction: myo-inositol + CDP-diacylglycerol = 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + CMP + H+.

cell adhesion [GO_0007155]

The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.

cell adhesion involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0061343]

The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

cell adhesion mediator activity [GO_0098631]

The binding by a cell-adhesion protein on a cell surface to an adhesion molecule on another cell surface, to mediate adhesion of the cell to the external substrate or to another cell.

cell adhesion molecule binding [GO_0050839]

Binding to a cell adhesion molecule.

cell adhesion receptor activity [GO_0004895]

The binding by a cell-adhesion protein on the cell surface to an extracellular matrix component, to mediate adhesion of the cell to the external substrate or to another cell and to initiate intracellular signaling. Cell adhesion receptors include integrins and cadherins. Reinstated term from obsolete.

cell body [GO_0044297]

The portion of a cell bearing surface projections such as axons, dendrites, cilia, or flagella that includes the nucleus, but excludes all cell projections. Note that ‘cell body’ and ‘cell soma’ are not used in the literature for cells that lack projections, nor for some cells (e.g. yeast with mating projections) that do have projections.

cell chemotaxis [GO_0060326]

The directed movement of a motile cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).

cell communication [GO_0007154]

Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

cell communication involved in cardiac conduction [GO_0086065]

Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings that contributes to the process of cardiac conduction. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

cell cortex [GO_0005938]

The region of a cell that lies just beneath the plasma membrane and often, but not always, contains a network of actin filaments and associated proteins.

cell cortex region [GO_0099738]

The complete extent of cell cortex that underlies some some region of the plasma membrane.

cell cycle [GO_0007049]

The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material followed by the division of the cell, but in endocycles or syncytial cells nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division.

cell cycle DNA replication [GO_0044786]

The DNA-dependent DNA replication that takes place as part of the cell cycle.

cell cycle DNA replication DNA unwinding [GO_1902297]

Any DNA unwinding that is involved in cell cycle DNA replication.

cell cycle phase [GO_0022403]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

cell cycle process [GO_0022402]

The cellular process that ensures successive accurate and complete genome replication and chromosome segregation.

cell death [GO_0008219]

Any biological process that results in permanent cessation of all vital functions of a cell. A cell should be considered dead when any one of the following molecular or morphological criteria is met: (1) the cell has lost the integrity of its plasma membrane; (2) the cell, including its nucleus, has undergone complete fragmentation into discrete bodies (frequently referred to as apoptotic bodies). The cell corpse (or its fragments) may be engulfed by an adjacent cell in vivo, but engulfment of whole cells should not be considered a strict criteria to define cell death as, under some circumstances, live engulfed cells can be released from phagosomes (see PMID:18045538). This term should not be used for direct annotation. The only exception should be when experimental data (e.g., staining with trypan blue or propidium iodide) show that cell death has occurred, but fail to provide details on death modality (accidental versus programmed). When information is provided on the cell death mechanism, annotations should be made to the appropriate descendant of ‘cell death’ (such as, but not limited to, GO:0097300 ‘programmed necrotic cell death’ or GO:0006915 ‘apoptotic process’). Also, if experimental data suggest that a gene product influences cell death indirectly, rather than being involved in the death process directly, consider annotating to a ‘regulation’ term.

cell development [GO_0048468]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate.

cell differentiation [GO_0030154]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism’s life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate and its subsequent development to the mature state.

cell differentiation in hindbrain [GO_0021533]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the mature cells of the hindbrain. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

cell differentiation in spinal cord [GO_0021515]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells of the spinal cord. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

cell differentiation involved in embryonic placenta development [GO_0060706]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of the embryonic placenta.

cell division [GO_0051301]

The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells. Note that this term differs from ‘cytokinesis ; GO:0000910’ in that cytokinesis does not include nuclear division.

cell fate commitment [GO_0045165]

The commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field. Note that this term was ‘cell fate determination’ but the term name was changed to better match its existing definition and the child term ‘cell fate determination; GO:0001709’ was also created.

cell fate commitment involved in formation of primary germ layer [GO_0060795]

The commitment of cells to specific cell fates of the endoderm, ectoderm, or mesoderm as a part of gastrulation.

cell fate commitment involved in pattern specification [GO_0060581]

The commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells within a field of cells that will exhibit a certain pattern of differentiation. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a developmental field resulting in specification of a cell type. Those signals are then interpreted in a cell-autonomous manner resulting in the determination of the cell type.

cell growth [GO_0016049]

The process in which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present.

cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development [GO_0061049]

The growth of a cardiac muscle cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from its initial formation to its mature state.

cell junction [GO_0030054]

A cellular component that forms a specialized region of connection between two or more cells, or between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or between two membrane-bound components of a cell, such as flagella.

cell junction assembly [GO_0034329]

A cellular process that results in the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a cell junction.

cell junction disassembly [GO_0150146]

The disaggregation of a cell junction into its constituent components.

cell junction maintenance [GO_0034331]

The organization process that preserves a cell junction in a stable functional or structural state. A cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.

cell junction organization [GO_0034330]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cell junction. A cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.

cell leading edge [GO_0031252]

The area of a motile cell closest to the direction of movement.

cell leading edge cell cortex [GO_1904269]

The cell cortex of the leading edge of a cell.

cell maturation [GO_0048469]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a cell to attain its fully functional state.

cell migration [GO_0016477]

The controlled self-propelled movement of a cell from one site to a destination guided by molecular cues. Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.

cell migration in hindbrain [GO_0021535]

The orderly movement of a cell that will reside in the hindbrain.

cell migration involved in coronary angiogenesis [GO_0060981]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the formation of new blood vessels in the heart from pre-existing blood vessels.

cell migration involved in coronary vasculogenesis [GO_0060980]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the differentiation of an endothelial cell that will form the blood vessels of the heart.

cell migration involved in endocardial cushion formation [GO_0003273]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the formation of an endocardial cushion. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

cell migration involved in gastrulation [GO_0042074]

The migration of individual cells within the blastocyst to help establish the multi-layered body plan of the organism (gastrulation). For example, the migration of cells from the surface to the interior of the embryo (ingression).

cell migration involved in heart development [GO_0060973]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the progression of the heart over time, from its initial formation, to the mature organ.

cell migration involved in heart formation [GO_0060974]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that contribute to the formation of the heart. The initial heart structure is made up of mesoderm-derived heart progenitor cells and neural crest-derived cells.

cell migration involved in vasculogenesis [GO_0035441]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the differentiation of an endothelial cell that will form de novo blood vessels and tubes.

cell morphogenesis [GO_0000902]

The developmental process in which the size or shape of a cell is generated and organized.

cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation [GO_0000904]

The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism’s life history.

cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation [GO_0048667]

The process in which the structures of a neuron are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized cell is acquiring the specialized features of a neuron.

cell motility [GO_0048870]

Any process involved in the controlled self-propelled movement of a cell that results in translocation of the cell from one place to another.

cell motility involved in camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO_0003411]

Any process involved in the controlled self-propelled movement of a cell that results in translocation of the cell from one place to another and contributes to the physical shaping or formation of the camera-type eye.

cell part morphogenesis [GO_0032990]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a cell part are generated and organized.

cell periphery [GO_0071944]

The part of a cell encompassing the cell cortex, the plasma membrane, and any external encapsulating structures.

cell population proliferation [GO_0008283]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. This term was moved out from being a child of ‘cellular process’ because it is a cell population-level process, and cellular processes are restricted to those processes that involve individual cells. Also note that this term is intended to be used for the proliferation of cells within a multicellular organism, not for the expansion of a population of single-celled organisms.

cell projection [GO_0042995]

A prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell projection assembly [GO_0030031]

Formation of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell projection membrane [GO_0031253]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a plasma membrane bounded cell surface projection.

cell projection morphogenesis [GO_0048858]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a cell projection are generated and organized.

cell projection organization [GO_0030030]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell proliferation in hindbrain [GO_0021534]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population in the hindbrain.

cell proliferation in midbrain [GO_0033278]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population in the midbrain.

cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis [GO_0035736]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to compound eye morphogenesis.

cell proliferation involved in embryonic placenta development [GO_0060722]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of the population in the embryonic placenta.

cell proliferation involved in endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO_1905315]

Any cell proliferation that is involved in endocardial cushion morphogenesis.

cell proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0061323]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

cell proliferation involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0061325]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the outflow tract.

cell surface receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007166]

The series of molecular signals initiated by activation of a receptor on the surface of a cell. The pathway begins with binding of an extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor, or for receptors that signal in the absence of a ligand, by ligand-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

cell surface receptor signaling pathway involved in cell-cell signaling [GO_1905114]

Any cell surface receptor signaling pathway that is involved in cell-cell signaling.

cell-cell adhesion [GO_0098609]

The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules.

cell-cell adhesion mediator activity [GO_0098632]

The binding by a cell-adhesion protein on the cell surface to an extracellular matrix component, to mediate adhesion of the cell to another cell.

cell-cell fusion [GO_0140253]

A cellular process in which two or more cells combine together, their plasma membrane fusing, producing a single cell. In some cases, nuclei fuse, producing a polyploid cell, while in other cases, nuclei remain separate, producing a syncytium.

cell-cell junction [GO_0005911]

A cell junction that forms a connection between two or more cells of an organism; excludes direct cytoplasmic intercellular bridges, such as ring canals in insects.

cell-cell junction assembly [GO_0007043]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between cells.

cell-cell junction disassembly [GO_0150147]

The disaggregation of a cell-cell junction into its constituent components.

cell-cell junction organization [GO_0045216]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cell-cell junction. A cell-cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells.

cell-cell signaling [GO_0007267]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another. This process includes signal transduction in the receiving cell and, where applicable, release of a ligand and any processes that actively facilitate its transport and presentation to the receiving cell. Examples include signaling via soluble ligands, via cell adhesion molecules and via gap junctions.

cell-cell signaling by wnt [GO_0198738]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another, medaited by a wnt family protein ligand. This process includes wnt signal transduction in the receiving cell, release of wnt ligand from a secreting cell as well as any processes that actively facilitate wnt transport and presentation to receptor on the recieving cell.

cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction [GO_0086019]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another and contributes to the heart process that regulates cardiac muscle contraction; beginning with the generation of an action potential in the sinoatrial node and ending with regulation of contraction of the myocardium.

cell-cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment [GO_0045168]

Signaling at long or short range between cells that results in the commitment of a cell to a certain fate.

cell-cell signaling involved in lung development [GO_0060495]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another and contributes to the progression of the lung, from its initial state to the mature structure.

cell-cell signaling involved in placenta development [GO_0060673]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another.

cell-cell signaling via exosome [GO_0099156]

Cell-cell signaling in which the ligand is carried between cells by an exosome.

cellular aldehyde metabolic process [GO_0006081]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving aldehydes, any organic compound with the formula R-CH=O, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular amide metabolic process [GO_0043603]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an amide, any derivative of an oxoacid in which an acidic hydroxy group has been replaced by an amino or substituted amino group, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular amine metabolic process [GO_0044106]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group, as carried out by individual cells. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_0008652]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

cellular amino acid catabolic process [GO_0009063]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

cellular amino acid metabolic process [GO_0006520]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acids, carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular ammonium homeostasis [GO_0097275]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of ammonium at the level of the cell.

cellular anatomical entity [GO_0110165]

A part of a cellular organism that is either an immaterial entity or a material entity with granularity above the level of a protein complex but below that of an anatomical system. Or, a substance produced by a cellular organism with granularity above the level of a protein complex.

cellular anion homeostasis [GO_0030002]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of anions at the level of a cell.

cellular aromatic compound metabolic process [GO_0006725]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving aromatic compounds, any organic compound characterized by one or more planar rings, each of which contains conjugated double bonds and delocalized pi electrons, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular biogenic amine biosynthetic process [GO_0042401]

The chemical reactions and pathways occurring at the level of individual cells resulting in the formation of any of a group of naturally occurring, biologically active amines, such as norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin, many of which act as neurotransmitters.

cellular biogenic amine catabolic process [GO_0042402]

The chemical reactions and pathways occurring at the level of individual cells resulting in the breakdown of biogenic amines, any of a group of naturally occurring, biologically active amines, such as norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin, many of which act as neurotransmitters.

cellular biogenic amine metabolic process [GO_0006576]

The chemical reactions and pathways occurring at the level of individual cells involving any of a group of naturally occurring, biologically active amines, such as norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin, many of which act as neurotransmitters.

cellular biosynthetic process [GO_0044249]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances, carried out by individual cells.

cellular calcium ion homeostasis [GO_0006874]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of calcium ions at the level of a cell.

cellular carbohydrate biosynthetic process [GO_0034637]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, carried out by individual cells.

cellular carbohydrate catabolic process [GO_0044275]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular carbohydrate metabolic process [GO_0044262]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular catabolic process [GO_0044248]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, carried out by individual cells.

cellular cation homeostasis [GO_0030003]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of cations at the level of a cell.

cellular chemical homeostasis [GO_0055082]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of a chemical at the level of the cell.

cellular component assembly [GO_0022607]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a cellular component.

cellular component assembly involved in morphogenesis [GO_0010927]

The cellular component assembly that is part of the initial shaping of the component during its developmental progression.

cellular component biogenesis [GO_0044085]

A process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a cellular component. Includes biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, and those macromolecular modifications that are involved in synthesis or assembly of the cellular component.

cellular component disassembly [GO_0022411]

A cellular process that results in the breakdown of a cellular component.

cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis [GO_0006921]

The breakdown of structures such as organelles, proteins, or other macromolecular structures during apoptosis.

cellular component maintenance [GO_0043954]

The organization process that preserves a cellular component in a stable functional or structural state.

cellular component morphogenesis [GO_0032989]

The process in which cellular structures, including whole cells or cell parts, are generated and organized.

cellular component organization [GO_0016043]

A process that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component.

cellular component organization or biogenesis [GO_0071840]

A process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component.

cellular detoxification [GO_1990748]

Any process carried out at the cellular level that reduces or removes the toxicity of a toxic substance. These may include transport of the toxic substance away from sensitive areas and to compartments or complexes whose purpose is sequestration of the toxic substance.

cellular developmental process [GO_0048869]

A biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cell over time from an initial condition to a later condition.

cellular divalent inorganic anion homeostasis [GO_0072501]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of divalent inorganic anions at the level of a cell. Note that this term was split from ‘cellular di-, tri-valent inorganic anion homeostasis ; GO:0030319’ (sibling term ‘cellular trivalent inorganic anion homeostasis’ ; GO:0072502').

cellular divalent inorganic cation homeostasis [GO_0072503]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of divalent cations at the level of a cell. Note that this term was split from ‘cellular di-, tri-valent inorganic cation homeostasis ; GO:0030005’ (sibling term ‘cellular trivalent inorganic cation homeostasis’ ; GO:0072504').

cellular glucan metabolic process [GO_0006073]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucans, polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

cellular glucose homeostasis [GO_0001678]

A cellular homeostatic process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of glucose within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.

cellular homeostasis [GO_0019725]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state at the level of the cell.

cellular ion homeostasis [GO_0006873]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of ions at the level of a cell.

cellular ketone metabolic process [GO_0042180]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms, as carried out by individual cells. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.

cellular lipid metabolic process [GO_0044255]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular localization [GO_0051641]

A cellular localization process whereby a substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within a cell including the localization of substances or cellular entities to the cell membrane.

cellular macromolecule biosynthetic process [GO_0034645]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass, carried out by individual cells.

cellular macromolecule catabolic process [GO_0044265]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a macromolecule, any large molecule including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular macromolecule localization [GO_0070727]

Any process in which a macromolecule is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location at the level of a cell. Localization at the cellular level encompasses movement within the cell, from within the cell to the cell surface, or from one location to another at the surface of a cell.

cellular macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0044260]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular metabolic process [GO_0044237]

The chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

cellular metal ion homeostasis [GO_0006875]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of metal ions at the level of a cell.

cellular modified amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_0042398]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of compounds derived from amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

cellular modified amino acid metabolic process [GO_0006575]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving compounds derived from amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

cellular monovalent inorganic anion homeostasis [GO_0030320]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of monovalent inorganic anions at the level of a cell.

cellular monovalent inorganic cation homeostasis [GO_0030004]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of monovalent inorganic cations at the level of a cell.

cellular nitrogen compound biosynthetic process [GO_0044271]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds.

cellular nitrogen compound catabolic process [GO_0044270]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds.

cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0034641]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving various organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular oxidant detoxification [GO_0098869]

Any process carried out at the cellular level that reduces or removes the toxicity superoxide radicals or hydrogen peroxide.

cellular phosphate ion homeostasis [GO_0030643]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of phosphate ions at the level of a cell.

cellular pigmentation [GO_0033059]

The deposition or aggregation of coloring matter in a cell.

cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process [GO_0033692]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of polysaccharides, polymers of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

cellular polysaccharide catabolic process [GO_0044247]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of polysaccharides, polymers of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular polysaccharide metabolic process [GO_0044264]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving polysaccharides, polymers of more than 10 monosaccharide residues joined by glycosidic linkages, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular process [GO_0009987]

Any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

cellular process involved in reproduction in multicellular organism [GO_0022412]

A process, occurring at the cellular level, that is involved in the reproductive function of a multicellular organism.

cellular protein localization [GO_0034613]

Any process in which a protein is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location at the level of a cell. Localization at the cellular level encompasses movement within the cell, from within the cell to the cell surface, or from one location to another at the surface of a cell.

cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0044267]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general, occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes cellular protein modification.

cellular protein modification process [GO_0006464]

The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications) occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).

cellular respiration [GO_0045333]

The enzymatic release of energy from inorganic and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).

cellular response to abiotic stimulus [GO_0071214]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an abiotic (non-living) stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to acetylcholine [GO_1905145]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an acetylcholine stimulus.

cellular response to alcohol [GO_0097306]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alcohol stimulus.

cellular response to alkaloid [GO_0071312]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alkaloid stimulus. Alkaloids are a large group of nitrogenous substances found in naturally in plants, many of which have extracts that are pharmacologically active.

cellular response to antibiotic [GO_0071236]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms.

cellular response to biotic stimulus [GO_0071216]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a biotic stimulus, a stimulus caused or produced by a living organism. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to blue light [GO_0071483]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a blue light stimulus. Blue light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of between 440 and 500nm.

cellular response to BMP stimulus [GO_0071773]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulus.

cellular response to caffeine [GO_0071313]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a caffeine stimulus. Caffeine is an alkaloid found in numerous plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon them.

cellular response to catecholamine stimulus [GO_0071870]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a catecholamine stimulus. A catecholamine is any of a group of biogenic amines that includes 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] and derivatives formed by substitution.

cellular response to chemical stimulus [GO_0070887]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a chemical stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to chemical stress [GO_0062197]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a chemical stimulus indicating the organism is under stress.

cellular response to cytokine stimulus [GO_0071345]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cytokine stimulus.

cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_0006974]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.

cellular response to dopamine [GO_1903351]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a dopamine stimulus.

cellular response to endogenous stimulus [GO_0071495]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus arising within the organism. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to environmental stimulus [GO_0104004]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an environmental stimulus.

cellular response to farnesol [GO_0097308]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a farnesol stimulus.

cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus [GO_0044344]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an fibroblast growth factor stimulus.

cellular response to growth factor stimulus [GO_0071363]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a growth factor stimulus.

cellular response to hormone stimulus [GO_0032870]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hormone stimulus.

cellular response to insulin stimulus [GO_0032869]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.

cellular response to light stimulus [GO_0071482]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a light stimulus, electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths classified as infrared, visible or ultraviolet light.

cellular response to lipid [GO_0071396]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipid stimulus.

cellular response to lipopolysaccharide [GO_0071222]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipopolysaccharide stimulus; lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.

cellular response to molecule of bacterial origin [GO_0071219]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus by molecules of bacterial origin such as peptides derived from bacterial flagellin.

cellular response to monoamine stimulus [GO_0071868]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a monoamine stimulus. A monoamine is any of a group of molecular messengers that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by ethylene group (-CH2-CH2-). Monoamines are derived from the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan.

cellular response to nitrogen compound [GO_1901699]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitrogen compound stimulus.

cellular response to organic cyclic compound [GO_0071407]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.

cellular response to organic substance [GO_0071310]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.

cellular response to organonitrogen compound [GO_0071417]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organonitrogen stimulus. An organonitrogen compound is formally a compound containing at least one carbon-nitrogen bond.

cellular response to oxidative stress [GO_0034599]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.

cellular response to oxygen radical [GO_0071450]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an oxygen radical stimulus. An oxygen radical is any oxygen species that carries a free electron; examples include hydroxyl radicals and the superoxide anion.

cellular response to oxygen-containing compound [GO_1901701]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an oxygen-containing compound stimulus.

cellular response to peptide [GO_1901653]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a peptide stimulus.

cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus [GO_0071375]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a peptide hormone stimulus. A peptide hormone is any of a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals.

cellular response to purine-containing compound [GO_0071415]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a purine-containing compound stimulus.

cellular response to radiation [GO_0071478]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an electromagnetic radiation stimulus. Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation. Note that ‘radiation’ refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength.

cellular response to reactive oxygen species [GO_0034614]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a reactive oxygen species stimulus. Reactive oxygen species include singlet oxygen, superoxide, and oxygen free radicals.

cellular response to steroid hormone stimulus [GO_0071383]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a steroid hormone stimulus.

cellular response to stimulus [GO_0051716]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. The process begins with detection of the stimulus by a cell and ends with a change in state or activity or the cell. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to stress [GO_0033554]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation). Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to superoxide [GO_0071451]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a superoxide stimulus. Superoxide is the anion, oxygen-, formed by addition of one electron to dioxygen (O2) or any compound containing the superoxide anion.

cellular response to toxic substance [GO_0097237]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a toxic stimulus.

cellular response to xenobiotic stimulus [GO_0071466]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a xenobiotic, a compound foreign to the organism exposed to it. It may be synthesized by another organism (like ampicilin) or it can be a synthetic chemical.

cellular sodium ion homeostasis [GO_0006883]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of sodium ions at the level of a cell.

cellular sulfate ion homeostasis [GO_0030642]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of sulfate ions at the level of a cell.

cellular trivalent inorganic anion homeostasis [GO_0072502]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of trivalent inorganic anions at the level of a cell. Note that this term was split from ‘cellular di-, tri-valent inorganic anion homeostasis ; GO:0030319’ (sibling term ‘cellular divalent inorganic anion homeostasis’ ; GO:0072501').

cellular_component [GO_0005575]

A location, relative to cellular compartments and structures, occupied by a macromolecular machine when it carries out a molecular function. There are two ways in which the gene ontology describes locations of gene products: (1) relative to cellular structures (e.g., cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane) or compartments (e.g., mitochondrion), and (2) the stable macromolecular complexes of which they are parts (e.g., the ribosome). Note that, in addition to forming the root of the cellular component ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose cellular component is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the cellular component of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the cellular component ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose cellular component is unknown. Note that when this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the cellular component of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ND, no data, is used to indicate this.

central nervous system development [GO_0007417]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the central nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system formation [GO_0021556]

The process that gives rise to the central nervous system. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system maturation [GO_0021626]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for the central nervous system to attain its fully functional state. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system morphogenesis [GO_0021551]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the central nervous system is generated and organized. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system neuron development [GO_0021954]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron whose cell body is located in the central nervous system, from initial commitment of the cell to a neuronal fate, to the fully functional differentiated neuron.

central nervous system neuron differentiation [GO_0021953]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron whose cell body resides in the central nervous system.

central nervous system vasculogenesis [GO_0022009]

The differentiation of endothelial cells from progenitor cells during blood vessel development, and the de novo formation of blood vessels and tubes in the central nervous system. The capillary endothelial cells in the brain are specialized to form the blood-brain barrier.

ceramide + H2O <=> stearate + sphingosine [endoplasmic reticulum] [GO_0017040]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-acylsphingosine + H2O = a fatty acid + sphingosine.

ceramide 1-phosphate binding [GO_1902387]

Binding to ceramide 1-phosphate.

ceramide 1-phosphate transfer activity [GO_1902388]

Removes a ceramide 1-phosphate from a membrane or a monolayer lipid particle, transports it through the aqueous phase while protected in a hydrophobic pocket, and brings it to an acceptor membrane or lipid particle.

ceramide 1-phosphate transport [GO_1902389]

The directed movement of a ceramide 1-phosphate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

ceramide binding [GO_0097001]

Binding to a ceramide, a class of lipids composed of sphingosine linked to a fatty acid. Ceramides are a major component of cell membranes.

Ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) catalyses the transfer of glucose to ceramide [GO_0008120]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + N-acylsphingosine = UDP + D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine.

ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase activity [GO_0002950]

Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-ethanolamine + a ceramide = CMP + a ceramide phosphoethanolamine.

ceramide transfer activity [GO_0120017]

Removes a ceramide from a membrane or a monolayer lipid particle, transports it through the aqueous phase while protected in a hydrophobic pocket, and brings it to an acceptor membrane or lipid particle.

ceramide transport [GO_0035627]

The directed movement of ceramides into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Ceramides are a class of lipid composed of sphingosine linked to a fatty acid.

CERK phosphorylates CERA to form C1P [GO_0001729]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + ceramide = ADP + ceramide-1-phosphate.

CES1trimer hydrolyses ACEI pro-drugs to ACEIs [GO_0052689]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a carboxylic ester bond.

CFTR F508del is degraded by the 26S proteasome [GO_0004175]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain.

cGAS produces cyclic GMP-AMP [GO_0061501]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + GTP = 2 diphosphate + cyclic G-P(2'-5')A-P(3'-5') (cyclic 2',3' GAMP).

cGMP binding [GO_0030553]

Binding to cGMP, the nucleotide cyclic GMP (guanosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate).

cGMP biosynthetic process [GO_0006182]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cyclic GMP, guanosine 3',5'-phosphate.

cGMP metabolic process [GO_0046068]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving cyclic GMP, guanosine 3',5'-phosphate.

cGMP:CNG transports Na+ and Ca2+ into the rod outer segment [GO_0005221]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a cation by a channel that opens when intracellular cyclic nucleotide has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

channel activator activity [GO_0099103]

Direct interaction with a channel (binding or modification), resulting in its opening. A channel catalyzes energy-independent facilitated diffusion, mediated by passage of a solute through a transmembrane aqueous pore or channel.

channel inhibitor activity [GO_0016248]

Binds to and stops, prevents, or reduces the activity of a channel.

channel regulator activity [GO_0016247]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a channel. A channel catalyzes energy-independent facilitated diffusion, mediated by passage of a solute through a transmembrane aqueous pore or channel.

chaperone binding [GO_0051087]

Binding to a chaperone protein, a class of proteins that bind to nascent or unfolded polypeptides and ensure correct folding or transport.

chemical homeostasis [GO_0048878]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of a chemical.

chemical homeostasis within a tissue [GO_0048875]

Any process involved in the maintenance of the internal steady state of the amount of a chemical at the level of the tissue.

chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0007268]

The vesicular release of classical neurotransmitter molecules from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

chemical synaptic transmission, postsynaptic [GO_0099565]

The part of synaptic transmission occurring in the post-synapse: a signal transduction pathway consisting of neurotransmitter receptor activation and its effects on postsynaptic membrane potential and the ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol.

chemoattractant activity [GO_0042056]

Providing the environmental signal that initiates the directed movement of a motile cell or organism towards a higher concentration of that signal.

chemoattractant activity involved in axon guidance [GO_1902379]

Any chemoattractant activity that is involved in axon guidance.

chemoattraction of axon [GO_0061642]

The process in which a neuron growth cone is directed to a specific target site in response to an attractive chemical signal.

chemokine activity [GO_0008009]

The function of a family of small chemotactic cytokines; their name is derived from their ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. All chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. Chemokines are found in all vertebrates, some viruses and some bacteria.

chemokine receptor binding [GO_0042379]

Binding to a chemokine receptor.

chemorepellent activity [GO_0045499]

Providing the environmental signal that initiates the directed movement of a motile cell or organism towards a lower concentration of that signal.

chemorepulsion of axon [GO_0061643]

The process in which a neuron growth cone is directed to a specific target site in response to a repulsive chemical cue.

chemosensory behavior [GO_0007635]

Behavior that is dependent upon the sensation of chemicals.

chemotaxis [GO_0006935]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).

chitin binding [GO_0008061]

Binding to chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of beta-(1->4)-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues.

chitin deacetylase activity [GO_0004099]

Catalysis of the reaction: chitin + H2O = chitosan + acetate.

chitin synthase activity [GO_0004100]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + ->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1- = UDP + ->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-.

chitinase activity [GO_0004568]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta linkages of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) polymers of chitin and chitodextrins.

chloride channel inhibitor activity [GO_0019869]

Binds to and stops, prevents, or reduces the activity of a chloride channel.

chloride transmembrane transport [GO_1902476]

The process in which chloride is transported across a membrane.

chloride transport [GO_0006821]

The directed movement of chloride into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

Cho is phosphorylated to PCho by CHK dimer [GO_0004103]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + choline = ADP + choline phosphate + 2 H+.

cholangiocyte apoptotic process [GO_1902488]

Any apoptotic process in a cholangiocyte.

cholangiocyte proliferation [GO_1990705]

The multiplication or reproduction of cholangiocytes, resulting in the expansion of the cholangiocyte population. A cholangiocyte is an epithelial cell that is part of the bile duct. Cholangiocytes contribute to bile secretion via net release of bicarbonate and water.

cholesterol binding [GO_0015485]

Binding to cholesterol (cholest-5-en-3-beta-ol); the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones.

cholesterol dehydrogenase activity [GO_0102294]

Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + NAD = cholest-5-en-3-one + NADH + H+.

cholesterol O-acyltransferase activity [GO_0034736]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + cholesterol = a cholesterol ester + CoA.

cholesterol transfer activity [GO_0120020]

Removes cholesterol from a membrane or a monolayer lipid particle, transports it through the aqueous phase while protected in a hydrophobic pocket, and brings it to an acceptor membrane or lipid particle.

cholesterol-protein transferase activity [GO_0140853]

Catalysis of the transfer of a cholesterol to an acceptor protein.

choline transport [GO_0015871]

The directed movement of choline into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium) is an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

choline:sodium symporter activity [GO_0005307]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: choline(out) + Na+(out) = choline(in) + Na+(in).

cholinesterase activity [GO_0004104]

Catalysis of the reaction: an acylcholine + H2O = choline + a carboxylic acid anion.

chondroblast differentiation [GO_0060591]

The process in which a mesenchymal cell, acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondroblast. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a chondroblast fate. A chondroblast is a precursor cell to chondrocytes.

chondrocyte development [GO_0002063]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a chondrocyte over time, from its commitment to its mature state. Chondrocyte development does not include the steps involved in committing a chondroblast to a chondrocyte fate.

chondrocyte development involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0003433]

The progression of a chondrocyte over time from after its commitment to its mature state where the chondrocyte will contribute to the shaping of an endochondral bone.

chondrocyte differentiation [GO_0002062]

The process in which a chondroblast acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondrocyte. A chondrocyte is a polymorphic cell that forms cartilage.

chondrocyte differentiation involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0003413]

The process in which a chondroblast acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondrocyte that will contribute to the development of a bone. A chondrocyte is a polymorphic cell that forms cartilage.

chondrocyte morphogenesis [GO_0090171]

The process in which the structures of a chondrocyte are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized cell is acquiring the specialized features of a chondrocyte.

chondrocyte morphogenesis involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0003414]

The process in which the structures of a chondrocyte that will contribute to bone development are generated and organized.

chordate embryonic development [GO_0043009]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation through a stage including a notochord and neural tube until birth or egg hatching.

chorion development [GO_0060717]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a chorion from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the structure and ends with the mature structure. The chorion is an extraembryonic membrane.

chorionic trophoblast cell development [GO_0060719]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the chorionic trophoblast over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate.

chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation [GO_0060718]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells of the ectoplacental cone acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize chorionic trophoblasts. These cells will migrate towards the spongiotrophoblast layer and give rise to syncytiotrophoblasts of the labyrinthine layer.

chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation [GO_0097360]

The multiplication or reproduction of chorionic trophoblast cells, resulting in the expansion of their population.

chromatin [GO_0000785]

The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome. Chromosomes include parts that are not part of the chromatin. Examples include the kinetochore.

chromatin assembly [GO_0031497]

The assembly of DNA, histone proteins, other associated proteins, and sometimes RNA, into chromatin structure, beginning with the formation of the basic unit, the nucleosome, followed by organization of the nucleosomes into higher order structures, ultimately giving rise to a complex organization of specific domains within the nucleus.

chromatin assembly or disassembly [GO_0006333]

The formation or destruction of chromatin structures.

chromatin binding [GO_0003682]

Binding to chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.

chromatin disassembly [GO_0031498]

The controlled breakdown of chromatin from a higher order structure into its simpler subcomponents, DNA, histones, other proteins, and sometimes RNA.

chromatin DNA binding [GO_0031490]

Binding to DNA that is assembled into chromatin.

chromatin insulator sequence binding [GO_0043035]

Interacting selectively and non-covalently and stoichiometrically with a chromatin insulator sequence, a DNA sequence that prevents enhancer-mediated activation or repression of transcription.

chromatin loop anchoring activity [GO_0140587]

Bridging together two DNA loop anchors together, maintaining a chromatin loop.

chromatin organization [GO_0006325]

Any process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of the physical structure of eukaryotic chromatin.

chromatin remodeling [GO_0006338]

A dynamic process of chromatin reorganization resulting in changes to chromatin structure. These changes allow DNA metabolic processes such as transcriptional regulation, DNA recombination, DNA repair, and DNA replication.

chromatin silencing complex [GO_0005677]

Any protein complex that mediates changes in chromatin structure that result in transcriptional silencing.

chromatin-protein adaptor activity [GO_0140463]

The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a protein or a protein complex with a nucleosome, to establish or maintain the chromatin localization of the protein, or protein complex.

chromosome [GO_0005694]

A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information. Chromosomes include parts that are not part of the chromatin. Examples include the kinetochore.

chromosome condensation [GO_0030261]

The progressive compaction of dispersed interphase chromatin into threadlike chromosomes prior to mitotic or meiotic nuclear division, or during apoptosis, in eukaryotic cells.

chromosome localization [GO_0050000]

Any process in which a chromosome is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

chromosome organization [GO_0051276]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of chromosomes, structures composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins that carries hereditary information. This term covers covalent modifications at the molecular level as well as spatial relationships among the major components of a chromosome.

chromosome organization involved in meiotic cell cycle [GO_0070192]

A process of chromosome organization that is involved in a meiotic cell cycle.

chromosome segregation [GO_0007059]

The process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized into specific structures and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets. In eukaryotes, chromosome segregation begins with the condensation of chromosomes, includes chromosome separation, and ends when chromosomes have completed movement to the spindle poles.

Chymase hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-10) to Angiotensin-(1-8) [GO_0008236]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a catalytic mechanism that involves a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile that is activated by a proton relay involving an acidic residue (e.g. aspartate or glutamate) and a basic residue (usually histidine).

ciliary basal body-plasma membrane docking [GO_0097711]

The docking of a cytosolic centriole/basal body to the plasma membrane via the ciliary transition fibers. In some species this may happen via an intermediate step, by first docking to the ciliary vesicle via the ciliary transition fibers. The basal body-ciliary vesicle then relocates to the plasma membrane, followed by the ciliary vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane, effectively attaching the basal body to the plasma membrane. Basal bodies in jawed vertebrates appear to first attach to a ciliary vesicle. It is unclear how specific this is to jawed vertebrates or if other organisms also employ this sequence. Some species like Giardia intestinalis do not relocate their basal bodies to the plasma membrane, but have their axonemes extend through the cytosol to then protrude out of the cell to form flagella.

ciliary body morphogenesis [GO_0061073]

The process in which the ciliary body generated and organized. The ciliary body is the circumferential tissue inside the eye composed of the ciliary muscle and ciliary processes.

ciliary membrane [GO_0060170]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a cilium. Note that cilia and eukaryotic flagella are deemed to be equivalent.

ciliary plasm [GO_0097014]

All of the contents of a cilium, excluding the plasma membrane surrounding the cilium. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent. Also, researchers consider the composition of both the plasm and the membrane of the cilium to be detectably different from that in the non-ciliary cytosol and plasma membrane (e.g. in terms of calcium ion concentration, membrane lipid composition, and more). For this reason, the term “ciliary plasm” is not linked to “cytoplasm”.

ciliary transition zone [GO_0035869]

A region of the cilium between the basal body and proximal segment that is characterized by Y-shaped assemblages that connect axonemal microtubules to the ciliary membrane. The ciliary transition zone appears to function as a gate that controls ciliary membrane composition and separates the cytosol from the ciliary plasm. Depending on the species, this region may have a distinct geometrically shaped electron-dense structure within the axonemal lumen visible in electron microscopy images; most animals don’t display this inner structure. The axoneme extends through the ciliary transition zone, but only consists of the outer doublets. The central pair, axonemal spokes, and dynein complexes are not found in this part of the ciliary shaft. Note that the connecting cilium of the photoreceptor cells is thought to be equivalent to the transition zone.

ciliary transition zone assembly [GO_1905349]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a ciliary transition zone.

cilium [GO_0005929]

A specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface and of some cytoplasmic parts. Each cilium is largely bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored to a basal body. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent. In most eukaryotic species, intracellular sub-components of the cilium, such as the ciliary base and rootlet, are located near the plasma membrane. In Diplomonads such as Giardia, instead, the same ciliary parts are located further intracellularly. Also, ‘cilium’ may be used when axonemal structure and/or motility are unknown, or when axonemal structure is unusual. For all other cases, please refer to children of ‘cilium’. Finally, note that any role of ciliary proteins in sensory events should be captured by annotating to relevant biological process terms.

cilium assembly [GO_0060271]

The assembly of a cilium, a specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

cilium disassembly [GO_0061523]

A cellular process that results in the breakdown of a cilium. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

cilium organization [GO_0044782]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cilium, a specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

circadian behavior [GO_0048512]

The specific behavior of an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

circadian mating behavior [GO_0035648]

The fluctuation in mating behavior that occurs over an approximately 24 hour cycle.

circadian rhythm [GO_0007623]

Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

circadian sleep/wake cycle [GO_0042745]

The cycle from wakefulness through an orderly succession of sleep states and stages that occurs on an approximately 24 hour rhythm.

circadian sleep/wake cycle process [GO_0022410]

A behavioral process involved in the cycle from wakefulness through an orderly succession of sleep states and stages that occurs on an approximately 24 hour rhythm.

circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0050802]

The part of the circadian sleep/wake cycle where the organism is asleep.

circulatory system development [GO_0072359]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the circulatory system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The circulatory system is the organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis.

circulatory system process [GO_0003013]

A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that moves extracellular fluids to and from tissue within a multicellular organism.

cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO_0000987]

Binding to a specific upstream regulatory DNA sequence (transcription factor recognition sequence or binding site) located in cis relative to the transcription start site (i.e., on the same strand of DNA) of a gene transcribed by some RNA polymerase. The proximal promoter is in cis with and relatively close to the core promoter.

cis-trans isomerase activity [GO_0016859]

Catalysis of a reaction that interconverts cis and trans isomers. Atoms or groups are termed cis or trans to one another when they lie respectively on the same or on opposite sides of a reference plane identifiable as common among stereoisomers.

citrate <=> isocitrate [GO_0003994]

Catalysis of the reaction: citrate = isocitrate. The reaction occurs in two steps: (1) citrate = cis-aconitate + H2O, (2) cis-aconitate + H2O = isocitrate. This reaction is the interconversion of citrate and isocitrate via the labile, enzyme-bound intermediate cis-aconitate. Water is removed from one part of the citrate molecule and added back to a different atom to form isocitrate. This is a process composed of two reactions represented by the terms ‘GO:0052632 : citrate hydro-lyase (cis-aconitate-forming) activity’ and ‘GO:0052633 : isocitrate hydro-lyase (cis-aconitate-forming) activity’.

citrate secondary active transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0071913]

Enables the transfer of citrate from one side of a membrane to the other, up its concentration gradient. The transporter binds the solute and undergoes a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction and is driven by a chemiosmotic source of energy. Secondary active transporters include symporters and antiporters.

citrate synthase activity [GO_0036440]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA.

citrate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015137]

Enables the transfer of citrate, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboyxlate, from one side of a membrane to the other.

citrate transport [GO_0015746]

The directed movement of citrate, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboyxlate, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

class I DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease activity [GO_0140078]

Catalysis of the cleavage of an AP site 3' of the baseless site by a beta-lyase mechanism, leaving an unsaturated aldehyde, termed a 3'-(4-hydroxy-5-phospho-2-pentenal) residue, and a 5'-phosphate. Note that this term is does not have parentage in the ‘nuclease activity’ branch of the ontology because both GO and the Enzyme Commission define nuclease activity as a type of hydrolysis. Class II AP endonuclease is a nuclease, but not Class I, III and IV.

class II DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease activity [GO_0052720]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages immediately 5' to an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP; also called abasic) site within a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule by creating internal breaks, generating a single-strand break with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends. Class II AP endonuclease is a nuclease, but not Class I, III and IV.

clathrin adaptor activity [GO_0035615]

Bringing together a cargo protein with clathrin, responsible for the formation of endocytic vesicles.

clathrin binding [GO_0030276]

Binding to a clathrin heavy or light chain, the main components of the coat of coated vesicles and coated pits, and which also occurs in synaptic vesicles.

clathrin heavy chain binding [GO_0032050]

Binding to a clathrin heavy chain.

clathrin light chain binding [GO_0032051]

Binding to a clathrin light chain.

CLCN4/5/6 exchange Cl- for H+ [GO_0015297]

Enables the active transport of a solute across a membrane by a mechanism whereby two or more species are transported in opposite directions in a tightly coupled process not directly linked to a form of energy other than chemiosmotic energy. The reaction is: solute A(out) + solute B(in) = solute A(in) + solute B(out).

cleavage involved in rRNA processing [GO_0000469]

Any phosphodiester bond hydrolysis involved in the conversion of a primary ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript into a mature rRNA molecule.

Cleavage of 5-hydroxyluracil by UNG glycosylase [GO_0004844]

Catalysis of the cleavage of the N-C1' glycosidic bond between the damaged DNA base and the deoxyribose sugar, releasing a free base and leaving an apyrimidinic (AP) site. Enzymes with this activity recognize and remove uracil bases in DNA that result from the deamination of cytosine or the misincorporation of dUTP opposite an adenine.

Cleavage of formamidopyrimidine (FapyA) by NTHL1 glycosylase [GO_0008534]

Catalysis of the removal of oxidized purine bases by cleaving the N-C1' glycosidic bond between the oxidized purine and the deoxyribose sugar. The reaction involves the formation of a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate. Release of the enzyme and free base by a beta-elimination or a beta, gamma-elimination mechanism results in the cleavage of the DNA backbone 3' of the apurinic (AP) site. Consider also annotating to the molecular function term ‘DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity ; GO:0003906’.

Cleavage of S protein into S1:S2 [GO_0004252]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a catalytic mechanism that involves a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile that is activated by a proton relay involving an acidic residue (e.g. aspartate or glutamate) and a basic residue (usually histidine).

cloaca development [GO_0035844]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cloaca over time, from it’s formation to the mature structure. The cloaca is the common chamber into which intestinal, genital and urinary canals open in vertebrates.

cloacal gland development [GO_1904484]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cloacal gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

club cell differentiation [GO_0060486]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a club cell. A club cell is an unciliated epithelial cell found in the respiratory and terminal bronchioles.

CNDP2:2Mn2+ dimer hydrolyses CysGly [GO_0004180]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a single C-terminal amino acid residue from a polypeptide chain.

co-SMAD binding [GO_0070410]

Binding to a common mediator SMAD signaling protein.

CoA carboxylase activity [GO_0016421]

Catalysis of the joining of a carboxyl group to a molecule that is attached to CoA, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

CoA hydrolase activity [GO_0016289]

Catalysis of the reaction: X-CoA + H2O = X + CoA; X may be any group.

CoA-ligase activity [GO_0016405]

Catalysis of the reaction: substrate + ATP + CoASH = AMP + diphosphate + substrate-CoA.

CoA-transferase activity [GO_0008410]

Catalysis of the transfer of a coenzyme A (CoA) group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

COASY transfers an adenylyl group from ATP to PPANT [GO_0004595]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + pantetheine 4'-phosphate = 3'-dephospho-CoA + diphosphate.

cobalamin binding [GO_0031419]

Binding to cobalamin (vitamin B12), a water-soluble vitamin characterized by possession of a corrin nucleus containing a cobalt atom.

cocaine binding [GO_0019811]

Binding to cocaine (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-benzoxytropane), an alkaloid obtained from dried leaves of the South American shrub Erythroxylon coca or by chemical synthesis.

coenzyme A transmembrane transport [GO_0035349]

The process in which coenzyme A is transported across a membrane. Coenzyme A, 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine, is an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

coenzyme A transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015228]

Enables the transfer of coenzyme A from one side of a membrane to the other. Coenzyme A, 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine, is an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.

coenzyme A transport [GO_0015880]

The directed movement of coenzyme A into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Coenzyme A, 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine, is an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.

cognition [GO_0050890]

The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.

collagen binding [GO_0005518]

Binding to collagen, a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (some regions are 33% glycine) and proline, occurring predominantly as 3-hydroxyproline (about 20%).

collagen biosynthetic process [GO_0032964]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (some regions are 33% glycine) and proline, occurring predominantly as 3-hydroxyproline (about 20%).

collagen catabolic process [GO_0030574]

The proteolytic chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of collagen in the extracellular matrix, usually carried out by proteases secreted by nearby cells.

collagen fibril binding [GO_0098633]

Binding to a collagen fibril.

collagen fibril organization [GO_0030199]

Any process that determines the size and arrangement of collagen fibrils within an extracellular matrix.

collagen metabolic process [GO_0032963]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (some regions are 33% glycine) and proline, occurring predominantly as 3-hydroxyproline (about 20%).

collagen network [GO_0098645]

A supramolecular complex that consists of collagen triple helices associated to form a network.

collagen receptor activity [GO_0038064]

Combining with a collagen and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.

collagen trimer [GO_0005581]

A protein complex consisting of three collagen chains assembled into a left-handed triple helix. These trimers typically assemble into higher order structures.

collagen type II trimer [GO_0005585]

A collagen homotrimer of alpha1(II) chains; type II collagen triple helices associate to form fibrils.

collagen type IV trimer [GO_0005587]

A collagen heterotrimer containing type IV alpha chains; [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) trimers are commonly observed, although more type IV alpha chains exist and may be present in type IV trimers; type IV collagen triple helices associate to form 3 dimensional nets within basement membranes.

collagen-activated signaling pathway [GO_0038065]

The series of molecular signals initiated by collagen binding to a cell surface receptor, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway [GO_0038063]

The series of molecular signals initiated by collagen binding to its receptor on the surface of a target cell where the receptor possesses tyrosine kinase activity, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

collagen-containing extracellular matrix [GO_0062023]

An extracellular matrix consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that provides not only essential physical scaffolding for the cellular constituents but can also initiate crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues required for tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. The components are secreted by cells in the vicinity and form a sheet underlying or overlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells.

colon smooth muscle contraction [GO_1990765]

A process in which force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry of the large intestine, exclusive of the rectum. The colon is that part of the large intestine that connects the small intestine to the rectum.

columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell development [GO_0002066]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface. Columnar/cuboidal epithelial cells take on the shape of a column or cube.

columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0002065]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell. A columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface. Columnar/cuboidal epithelial cells take on the shape of a column or cube.

columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell maturation [GO_0002069]

The developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a columna/cuboidal epithelial cell to attain its fully functional state. A columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface. Columnar/cuboidal epithelial cells take on the shape of a column or cube.

common bile duct development [GO_0061009]

The progression of the common bile duct over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The common bile duct is formed from the joining of the common hepatic duct running from the liver, and the cystic duct running from the gall bladder. The common bile duct transports bile from the liver and gall bladder to the intestine.

Complex I oxidises NADH to NAD+, reduces CoQ to QH2 [GO_0008137]

Catalysis of the reaction: NADH + ubiquinone + 5 H+(in) <=> NAD+ + ubiquinol + 4 H+(out).

complex of collagen trimers [GO_0098644]

A complex of collagen trimers such as a fibril or collagen network.

compound eye development [GO_0048749]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the compound eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The compound eye is an organ of sight that contains multiple repeating units, often arranged hexagonally. Each unit has its own lens and photoreceptor cell(s) and can generate either a single pixelated image or multiple images, per eye.

compound eye morphogenesis [GO_0001745]

The morphogenetic process in which the anatomical structures of the compound eye are generated and organized. The adult compound eye is a precise assembly of 700-800 ommatidia. Each ommatidium is composed of 20 cells, identified by cell type and position. An example of compound eye morphogenesis is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0001751]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an eye photoreceptor cell.

compound eye retinal cell apoptotic process [GO_1990010]

Any apoptotic process in a compound eye retinal cell.

compound eye retinal cell programmed cell death [GO_0046667]

Programmed cell death that occurs in the retina to remove excess cells between ommatidia, thus resulting in a hexagonal lattice, precise with respect to cell number and position surrounding each ommatidium.

COMT transfers Met to DOPAC to form HVA [GO_0008168]

Catalysis of the transfer of a methyl group to an acceptor molecule.

connective tissue development [GO_0061448]

The progression of a connective tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

contractile fiber [GO_0043292]

Fibers, composed of actin, myosin, and associated proteins, found in cells of smooth or striated muscle.

conus arteriosus development [GO_0003238]

The progression of the conus arteriosus over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The conus arteriosus is a valved chamber with thick muscular walls stemming from the ventricle and connecting to the pulmonary trunk.

conus arteriosus formation [GO_0003240]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of the conus arteriosus from unspecified parts. The conus arteriosus is a valved chamber with thick muscular walls stemming from the ventricle and connecting to the pulmonary trunk.

conus arteriosus morphogenesis [GO_0003239]

The process in which the conus arteriosus is generated and organized. The conus arteriosus is a valved chamber with thick muscular walls stemming from the ventricle and connecting to the pulmonary trunk.

COP9 signalosome deneddylates nuclear CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex [GO_0019784]

An isopeptidase activity that cleaves NEDD8 from a target protein to which it is conjugated.

copper chaperone activity [GO_0016531]

Directly binding to and delivering copper ions to a target protein.

copper ion binding [GO_0005507]

Binding to a copper (Cu) ion.

copper ion transmembrane transport [GO_0035434]

The directed movement of copper cation across a membrane. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

copper ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0005375]

Enables the transfer of copper (Cu) ions from one side of a membrane to the other.

copper ion transport [GO_0006825]

The directed movement of copper (Cu) ions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

COPRS:CCND1:CDK4:PRMT5:pT5-WDR77 methylates arginine-4 of histone H4 (H4R3) [GO_0008469]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (histone)-arginine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + (histone)-N-methyl-arginine.

copulation [GO_0007620]

The act of sexual union between male and female, involving the transfer of sperm.

corazonin receptor activity [GO_0035237]

Combining with the neuropeptide corazonin to initiate a change in cell activity.

Core MLL complex methylates H3K4Me2-Nucleosome at the GP1BA gene promoter [GO_0042800]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + histone H3 L-lysine (position 4) = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + histone H3 N6-methyl-L-lysine (position 4). This reaction is the addition of a methyl group to the lysine residue at position 4 of the histone H3 protein. Note that in some species, the methyl group may be added to a lysine in a slightly different position of the histone H3 protein, but that this term still applies.

Core MLL complex, SMYD3, PRDM9 methylate dimethyl-lysine-5 of histone H3 (H3K4) [GO_0018024]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + histone L-lysine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + histone N6-methyl-L-lysine. The methylation of peptidyl-lysine in histones forms N6-methyl-L-lysine, N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine and N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine derivatives.

core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding [GO_0001046]

Binding to a sequence of DNA that is part of a core promoter region. The core promoter is composed of the transcription start site and binding sites for the RNA polymerase and the basal transcription machinery. The transcribed region might be described as a gene, cistron, or operon.

coreceptor activity [GO_0015026]

Combining with an extracellular or intracellular messenger, and in cooperation with a nearby primary receptor, initiating a change in cell activity.

coreceptor activity involved in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO_0060724]

Combining with an extracellular messenger, and in cooperation with a primary EGF receptor, initiating a change in cell activity through the EGF receptor signaling pathway.

coreceptor activity involved in Wnt signaling pathway [GO_0071936]

In cooperation with a primary Wnt receptor, initiating a change in cell activity through the Wnt signaling pathway.

cornea development in camera-type eye [GO_0061303]

The progression of the cornea over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cornea is the transparent structure that covers the anterior of the eye.

coronary vasculature development [GO_0060976]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the blood vessels of the heart over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

coronary vasculature morphogenesis [GO_0060977]

The process in which the anatomical structures of blood vessels of the heart are generated and organized. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

coronary vein morphogenesis [GO_0003169]

The process in which the anatomical structures of veins of the heart are generated and organized.

courtship behavior [GO_0007619]

The behavior of an organism for the purpose of attracting sexual partners.

CPO transforms COPRO3 to PPGEN9 [GO_0004109]

Catalysis of the reaction: coproporphyrinogen III + 2 H+ + O2 = 2 CO2 + 2 H2O + protoporphyrinogen IX.

CPT1A,B transfers PALM to CAR [GO_0004095]

Catalysis of the reaction: palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine.

cranial ganglion development [GO_0061550]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cranial ganglion over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

cranial ganglion formation [GO_0061560]

The process that gives rise to a cranial ganglion. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.

cranial ganglion maturation [GO_0061558]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a cranial ganglion to attain its fully functional state.

cranial ganglion morphogenesis [GO_0061559]

The process in which the anatomical structure of a cranial ganglion is generated and organized.

cranial nerve development [GO_0021545]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cranial nerves over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial nerve formation [GO_0021603]

The process that gives rise to the cranial nerves. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial nerve maturation [GO_0021605]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a cranial nerve to attain its fully functional state. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial nerve morphogenesis [GO_0021602]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the cranial nerves are generated and organized. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial skeletal system development [GO_1904888]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cranial skeletal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cranial skeletal system is the skeletal subdivision of the head, and includes the skull (cranium plus mandible), pharyngeal and/or hyoid apparatus.

CRD domain binding [GO_0071906]

Binding to a CRD (context dependent regulatory) domain, a domain of about 130 residues that is the most divergent region among the LEF/TCF proteins.

creatine + ATP => phosphocreatine + ADP [CK octamer] [GO_0004111]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + creatine = N-phosphocreatine + ADP + 2 H+.

Crotonoyl-CoA+H2O<=>(S)-3-Hydroxybutanoyl-CoA [GO_0004300]

Catalysis of the reaction: (3S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA = trans-2-enoyl-CoA + H2O.

CRYL1 dimer dehydrogenates L-gulonate to 3-dehydro-L-gulonate [GO_0050104]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-gulonate + NAD+ = 3-dehydro-L-gulonate + H+ + NADH.

CS is cleaved from its proteoglycan [GO_0016798]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of any glycosyl bond.

CTU1:CTU2:URM1 thiolates uridine-34 in tRNAs [GO_0016783]

Catalysis of the transfer of sulfur atoms from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

cullin family protein binding [GO_0097602]

Binding to a member of the cullin family, hydrophobic proteins that act as scaffolds for ubiquitin ligases (E3).

CYB5Rs reduce MetHb to HbA [GO_0004128]

Catalysis of the reaction: NAD(P)H + H+ + 2 ferricytochrome b(5) = NAD(P)+ + 2 ferrocytochrome b(5).

CYBRD1:Heme reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ [GO_0016722]

Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction in which the oxidation state of metal ion is altered.

cyclase activator activity [GO_0010853]

Binds to and increases the activity of an enzyme that catalyzes a ring closure reaction.

cyclase activity [GO_0009975]

Catalysis of a ring closure reaction.

cyclase inhibitor activity [GO_0010852]

Binds to and decreases the activity of an enzyme that catalyzes a ring closure reaction.

cyclase regulator activity [GO_0010851]

Binds to and modulates the activity of an enzyme that catalyzes a ring closure reaction.

cyclic GMP-AMP synthase activity [GO_0140699]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + GTP = 2 diphosphate + cyclic GMP-AMP. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. It should be possible to annotate to a more specific child term that descibes the position of the phosphate group on the cGAMP molecule.

cyclic nucleotide binding [GO_0030551]

Binding to a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.

cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process [GO_0009190]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.

cyclic nucleotide metabolic process [GO_0009187]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.

cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase activity [GO_0004690]

cNMP-dependent catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. This reaction requires the presence of a cyclic nucleotide.

cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel activity [GO_0043855]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens when a cyclic nucleotide has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

cyclic purine nucleotide metabolic process [GO_0052652]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue and the base is a purine.

cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate synthase activity [GO_0061799]

Catalysis of the reaction: (8S)-3',8-cyclo-7,8-dihydroguanosine 5'-triphosphate = cyclic pyranopterin phosphate + diphosphate.

cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity [GO_0004112]

Catalysis of the reaction: a nucleoside cyclic phosphate + H2O = a nucleoside phosphate.

cyclic-nucleotide-mediated signaling [GO_0019935]

Any intracellular signal transduction in which the signal is passed on within the cell via a cyclic nucleotide. Includes production or release of the cyclic nucleotide, and downstream effectors that further transmit the signal within the cell.

cyclin binding [GO_0030332]

Binding to cyclins, proteins whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, rising steadily until mitosis, then falling abruptly to zero. As cyclins reach a threshold level, they are thought to drive cells into G2 phase and thus to mitosis.

cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity [GO_0097472]

Cyclin-dependent catalysis of the phosphorylation of an amino acid residue in a protein, usually according to the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP. This reaction requires the binding of a regulatory cyclin subunit and full activity requires stimulatory phosphorylation by a CDK-activating kinase (CAK).

cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity [GO_0061575]

Binds to and increases the activity of a cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase.

cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity [GO_0004861]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase.

cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity [GO_0016538]

Modulates the activity of a cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase, enzymes of the protein kinase family that are regulated through association with cyclins and other proteins.

Cyclisation of GTP to precursor Z [GO_1904047]

Binding to S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

cyclo-ligase activity [GO_0016882]

Catalysis of the joining of two groups within a single molecule via a carbon-nitrogen bond, forming heterocyclic ring, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

cyclohydrolase activity [GO_0019238]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of any non-peptide carbon-nitrogen bond in a cyclic amidine, a compound of the form R-C(=NH)-NH2, in a reaction that involves the opening of a ring.

cyclosporin A binding [GO_0016018]

Binding to cyclosporin A, a cyclic undecapeptide that contains several N-methylated and unusual amino acids.

CYP24A1 24-hydroxylates CTL [GO_0030342]

Catalysis of the hydroxylation of C-24 of 1-alpha,25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3; calcitriol).

CYP2D6 4-hydroxylates debrisoquine [GO_0016712]

Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which hydrogen or electrons are transferred from reduced flavin or flavoprotein and one other donor, and one atom of oxygen is incorporated into one donor.

CYP4F8 19-hydroxylates PGH2 [GO_0004497]

Catalysis of the incorporation of one atom from molecular oxygen into a compound and the reduction of the other atom of oxygen to water.

cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase activity [GO_0047804]

Catalysis of the reaction: RS-CH2-CH(NH3+)COO- = RSH + NH3 + pyruvate.

cysteine-type deNEDDylase activity [GO_0140757]

An thiol-dependent isopeptidase activity that cleaves NEDD8 from a target protein to which it is conjugated.

cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity [GO_0140608]

Binds to and increases the activity of a cysteine-type endopeptidase.

cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process [GO_0008656]

Binds to and increases the rate of proteolysis catalyzed by a cysteine-type endopeptidase involved in the apoptotic process. Examples of this are 1) granzymes that may bind to initiator caspases and cleave them, and 2) already active caspases, e.g. caspase 9, that cleave effector caspases.

cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis [GO_0097200]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a mechanism in which the sulfhydryl group of a cysteine residue at the active center acts as a nucleophile, and contributing to the execution phase of apoptosis. Examples of gene products that may be annotated to this term include CASP3, CASP6 and CASP7, also called effector (or executioner) caspases.

cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity [GO_0004869]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a cysteine-type endopeptidase.

cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process [GO_0043027]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a cysteine-type endopeptidase involved in the apoptotic process.

cysteine-type endopeptidase regulator activity involved in apoptotic process [GO_0043028]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a cysteine-type endopeptidase involved in the apoptotic process.

cystic duct development [GO_0035628]

The progression of the cystic duct over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cystic duct runs from the gall bladder to the common bile duct.

cytidine catabolic process [GO_0006216]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cytidine, cytosine riboside, a widely distributed nucleoside.

cytidine deaminase activity [GO_0004126]

Catalysis of the reaction: cytidine + H2O = uridine + NH3.

cytidine deamination [GO_0009972]

The removal of amino group in the presence of water.

cytidine metabolic process [GO_0046087]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving cytidine, cytosine riboside, a widely distributed nucleoside.

cytidylate kinase activity [GO_0004127]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (d)CMP = ADP + (d)CDP.

cytidylyltransferase activity [GO_0070567]

Catalysis of the transfer of a cytidylyl group to an acceptor.

cytochrome-c oxidase activity [GO_0004129]

Catalysis of the reaction: 4 ferrocytochrome c + O2 + 4 H+ = 4 ferricytochrome c + 2 H2O. The reduction of O2 to water is accompanied by the extrusion of four protons from the intramitochondrial compartment.

cytokine activity [GO_0005125]

The activity of a soluble extracellular gene product that interacts with a receptor to effect a change in the activity of the receptor to control the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells.

cytokine binding [GO_0019955]

Binding to a cytokine, any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity.

cytokine receptor activity [GO_0004896]

Combining with a cytokine and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.

cytokine receptor binding [GO_0005126]

Binding to a cytokine receptor.

cytokine-mediated signaling pathway [GO_0019221]

The series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a cytokine to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

cytokinesis [GO_0000910]

The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of a cell and its partitioning into two daughter cells. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. When annotating eukaryotic species, mitotic or meiotic cytokinesis should always be specified for manual annotation and for prokaryotic species use ‘FtsZ-dependent cytokinesis ; GO:0043093’ or Cdv-dependent cytokinesis ; GO:0061639. Also, note that cytokinesis does not necessarily result in physical separation and detachment of the two daughter cells from each other.

cytoplasm [GO_0005737]

The contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.

cytoplasm organization [GO_0007028]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is all of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.

cytoplasmic microtubule [GO_0005881]

Any microtubule in the cytoplasm of a cell.

cytoplasmic microtubule bundle [GO_1905720]

Any microtubule bundle that is part of a cytoplasm.

cytoplasmic microtubule depolymerization [GO_0010938]

The removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of a cytoplasmic microtubule.

cytoplasmic microtubule organization [GO_0031122]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of structures formed of microtubules and associated proteins in the cytoplasm of a cell.

cytoplasmic region [GO_0099568]

Any (proper) part of the cytoplasm of a single cell of sufficient size to still be considered cytoplasm.

cytoplasmic vesicle [GO_0031410]

A vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell.

cytoplasmic vesicle membrane [GO_0030659]

The lipid bilayer surrounding a cytoplasmic vesicle.

cytoskeletal anchor activity [GO_0008093]

The binding activity of a protein that brings together a cytoskeletal protein (either a microtubule or actin filament, spindle pole body, or protein directly bound to them) and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.

cytoskeletal motor activator activity [GO_0140660]

Binds to and increases the activity of a motor protein.

cytoskeletal motor activity [GO_0003774]

Generation of force resulting in movement, for example along a microfilament or microtubule, or in torque resulting in membrane scission or rotation of a flagellum. The energy required is obtained either from the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate or by an electrochemical proton gradient (proton-motive force).

cytoskeletal motor inhibitor activity [GO_0140661]

Binds to and stops, prevents, or reduces the activity of a motor protein.

cytoskeletal motor regulator activity [GO_0140659]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a motor protein.

cytoskeletal protein binding [GO_0008092]

Binding to a protein component of a cytoskeleton (actin, microtubule, or intermediate filament cytoskeleton).

cytoskeletal protein-membrane anchor activity [GO_0106006]

The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a cytoskeletal protein or protein complex and a plasma membrane lipid or membrane-associated protein, in order to maintain the localization of the cytoskeleton at a specific cortical membrane location.

cytoskeletal regulatory protein binding [GO_0005519]

Binding to a protein involved in modulating the reorganization of the cytoskeleton.

cytoskeleton [GO_0005856]

Any of the various filamentous elements that form the internal framework of cells, and typically remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble components of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, the microtrabecular lattice, and other structures characterized by a polymeric filamentous nature and long-range order within the cell. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles.

cytoskeleton organization [GO_0007010]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures.

cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport [GO_0030705]

The directed movement of substances along cytoskeletal fibers such as microfilaments or microtubules within a cell.

Cytosolic chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA or choloyl-CoA are conjugated with glycine or taurine [GO_0016746]

Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

Cytosolic PHD2,3 hydroxylates proline residues on HIF1A [GO_0031545]

Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl L-proline + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = peptidyl trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline + succinate + CO2.

D-amino acid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0042943]

Enables the transfer of D-amino acids from one side of a membrane to the other. D-amino acids are the D-enantiomers of amino acids.

D-amino acid transport [GO_0042940]

The directed movement of the D-enantiomer of an amino acid into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

D-amino-acid oxidase activity [GO_0003884]

Catalysis of the reaction: a D-amino acid + H2O + O2 = a 2-oxo acid + NH3 + hydrogen peroxide.

D-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity [GO_0045290]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-arabinose + NAD(P)+ = D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + NAD(P)H + H+.

D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + H2O => D-fructose 6-phosphate + orthophosphate [GO_0042132]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + H2O = D-fructose 6-phosphate + phosphate.

D-fructose 6-phosphate + ATP => D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate + ADP [GO_0003873]

Catalysis of the reaction: beta-D-fructose 6-phosphate + ATP = beta-D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate + ADP + 2 H+.

D-fructose 6-phosphate <=> alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate [GO_0004347]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucose 6-phosphate = D-fructose 6-phosphate.

D-glucono-1,5-lactone 6-phosphate + H2O => 6-phospho-D-gluconate [GO_0017057]

Catalysis of the reaction: 6-O-phosphono-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + H2O = 6-phospho-D-gluconate + H+.

D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + orthophosphate + NAD+ <=> 1,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate + NADH + H+ [GO_0004365]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD+ = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADH + H+.

D-loop dissociation and strand annealing [GO_0003678]

Unwinding of a DNA helix, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

D-ribulokinase activity [GO_0019150]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + D-ribulose = ADP + D-ribulose 5-phosphate.

D-ribulose 5-phosphate <=> ribose 5-phosphate [GO_0004751]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-ribose 5-phosphate = D-ribulose 5-phosphate.

D-xylose 1-dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity [GO_0047837]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-xylose + NADP+ = D-xylono-1,5-lactone + H+ + NADPH.

D5 dopamine receptor binding [GO_0031752]

Binding to a D5 dopamine receptor.

damaged DNA binding [GO_0003684]

Binding to damaged DNA.

DARPP-32 phosphorylated on T34 binds to PP1, inhibiting its function [GO_0019888]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a protein phosphatase.

DARPP-32 phosphorylated on Thr75 binds to PKA, inhibiting its function [GO_0004862]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

DCLRE1C (ARTEMIS) processes DNA DSB ends [GO_0004519]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids by creating internal breaks.

DCXR tetramer reduces L-xylulose to xylitol [GO_0050038]

Catalysis of the reaction: NADP+ + xylitol = L-xylulose + H+ + NADPH.

DDHD1,2 hydrolyse PA [GO_0004620]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a glycerophospholipid.

DDT-dehydrochlorinase activity [GO_0018833]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane = 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene + chloride + H+.

deacetylase activity [GO_0019213]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of an acetyl group or groups from a substrate molecule.

DEAD/H-box RNA helicase binding [GO_0017151]

Binding to a DEAD/H-box RNA helicase.

deaminated base DNA N-glycosylase activity [GO_0097506]

DNA N-glycosylase activity acting on deaminated bases.

death domain binding [GO_0070513]

Binding to a death domain of a protein. The death domain (DD) is a homotypic protein interaction module composed of a bundle of six alpha-helices. DD bind each other forming oligomers. Some DD-containing proteins are involved in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammation through their activation of caspases and NF-kappaB. For binding to the death effector domain, consider instead the term ‘death effector domain binding ; GO:0035877’.

decarboxylation-driven active transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015451]

Primary active transport of a solute across a membrane driven by decarboxylation of a cytoplasmic substrate. Primary active transport is catalysis of the transport of a solute across a membrane, up the solute’s concentration gradient, by binding the solute and undergoing a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction and is driven by a primary energy source.

defecation [GO_0030421]

The expulsion of feces from the rectum.

Defective ABCC9 (in KCNJ11:ABCC9) does not transport K+ from extracellular region to cytosol [GO_0005242]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a potassium ion by an inwardly-rectifying voltage-gated channel. An inwardly rectifying current-voltage relation is one where at any given driving force the inward flow of K+ ions exceeds the outward flow for the opposite driving force. The inward-rectification is due to a voltage-dependent block of the channel pore by a specific ligand or ligands, and as a result the macroscopic conductance depends on the difference between membrane voltage and the K+ equilibrium potential rather than on membrane voltage itself.

Defective B3GAT3 does not transfer GlcA to tetrasaccharide linker [GO_0015018]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucuronate + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-4-beta-D-galactosyl-O-beta-D-xylosylprotein = UDP + 3-beta-D-glucuronosyl-3-beta-D-galactosyl-4-beta-D-galactosyl-O-beta-D-xylosylprotein.

Defective CFTR does not transport Cl- from cytosol to extracellular region [GO_0015108]

Enables the transfer of chloride ions from one side of a membrane to the other.

Defective CHSY1 does not transfer GalNAc to chondroitin [GO_0047238]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucuronyl-N-acetyl-1,3-beta-D-galactosaminylproteoglycan + UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine = N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,4-beta-D-glucuronyl-N-acetyl-1,3-beta-D-galactosaminylproteoglycan + UDP.

Defective CYP11B2 does not oxidise CORST [GO_0008395]

Catalysis of the formation of a hydroxyl group on a steroid by incorporation of oxygen from O2.

Defective EXT1 (in EXT1:EXT2) does not transfer GlcNAc to the heparan chain [GO_0050508]

Catalysis of the reaction: beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-proteoglycan + UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine = N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-proteoglycan + UDP.

Defective EXT2 (in EXT1:EXT2) does not transfer GlcA to heparan [GO_0050509]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan + UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate = beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan + UDP.

Defective FMO3 does not N-oxidise TMA [GO_0004499]

Catalysis of the reaction: N,N-dimethylaniline + NADPH + H+ + O2 = N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxide + NADP+ + H2O.

Defective GALK1 does not phosphorylate Gal [GO_0004335]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-galactose + ATP = alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate + ADP + 2 H+.

Defective GALT does not transfer UMP to Gal1P [GO_0008108]

Catalysis of the reaction: alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate + UDP-D-glucose = alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate + UDP-D-galactose.

Defective GCK does not phosphorylate Glc to form G6P [GO_0004340]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + D-glucose = ADP + D-glucose-6-phosphate.

Defective GCLC does not ligate L-Glu to L-Cys [GO_0004357]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-cysteine + L-glutamate + ATP = L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteine + ADP + 2 H+ + phosphate.

Defective GFPT1 does not transfer an amino group from L-Gln to F6P to form GlcN6P [GO_0004360]

Catalysis of the reaction: beta-D-fructose 6-phosphate + L-glutamine = D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-glutamate.

Defective GGT1 does not hydrolyse glutamate from AFXBO-SG, AFNBO-SG [GO_0036374]

Catalysis of the reaction: glutathione + H2O = L-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate.

Defective GNS does not hydrolyse 6-sulfate from GlcNAc6S [GO_0008449]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the 6-sulfate group of the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate units of heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate.

Defective GSS does not synthesize GSH [GO_0004363]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteine + ATP + glycine = ADP + glutathione + 2 H+ + phosphate.

Defective HEXA does not cleave the terminal GalNAc from keratan sulfate [GO_0004563]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides.

Defective MAN1B1 does not hydrolyse 1,2-linked mannose (a branch) [GO_0004571]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the terminal (1->2)-linked alpha-D-mannose residues in an oligo-mannose oligosaccharide.

Defective MAOA does not oxidatively deaminate 5HT [GO_0008131]

Catalysis of the reaction: a primary amine + H2O + O2 = an aldehyde + NH3 + hydrogen peroxide.

Defective MAT1A does not transfer Ado from ATP to L-Met [GO_0004478]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-methionine + H2O = phosphate + diphosphate + S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

Defective OPLAH does not hydrolyse OPRO [GO_0017168]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5-oxo-L-proline + ATP + 2 H2O = L-glutamate + ADP + 2 H+ + phosphate.

Defective RDH12 does not reduce atRAL to atROL [GO_0052650]

Catalysis of the reaction: all-trans-retinol + NADP+ = all-trans-retinal + NADPH + H+.

Defective RHAG does not transport NH4+ from cytosol to extracellular region (rbc) [GO_0008519]

Enables the transfer of ammonium from one side of a membrane to the other. Ammonium is the cation NH4+ which is formed from N2 by root-nodule bacteria in leguminous plants and is an excretory product in ammonotelic animals.

Defective SLC11A2 does not cotransport Fe2+, H+ from extracellular region to cytosol [GO_0005381]

Enables the transfer of iron (Fe) ions from one side of a membrane to the other. An example of this is mouse ferroportin (UniProtKB:Q9JHI9), which transports iron out of the cell.

Defective SLC12A6 does not cotransport K+, Cl- from cytosol to extracellular region [GO_0015379]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: K+(out) + Cl-(out) = K+(in) + Cl-(in).

Defective SLC20A2 does not cotransport Pi, Na+ from extracellular region to cytosol [GO_0005436]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: Na+(out) + phosphate(out) = Na+(in) + phosphate(in).

Defective SLC22A18 does not exchange extracellular organic cations for cytosolic H+ [GO_0015299]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: solute(out) + H+(in) = solute(in) + H+(out).

Defective SLC24A4 does not exchange extracellular 4Na+ for cytosolic Ca2+, K+ [GO_0008273]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: Ca2+(in) + K+(in) + Na+(out) = Ca2+(out) + K+(out) + Na+(in).

Defective SLC26A2 does not cotransport extracellular SO4(2-), H+ to cytosol [GO_0015116]

Enables the transfer of sulfate ions, SO4(2-), from one side of a membrane to the other.

Defective SLC37A4 does not exchange G6P and Pi across the ER membrane [GO_0061513]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: glucose 6-phosphate(out) + inorganic phosphate(in) = glucose 6-phosphate(in) + inorganic phosphate(out).

Defective SLC4A1 does not exchange Cl- for HCO3- (in erythrocytes) [GO_0005452]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: inorganic anion(out) + solute(in) = inorganic anion (in) + solute(out).

Defective SLC5A7 does not cotransport Cho, Cl-, Na+ from extracellular region to cytosol [GO_0015220]

Enables the transfer of choline from one side of a membrane to the other. Choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium) is an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Defective UGT1A1 does not transfer GlcA from UDP-GlcA to BMG [GO_0015020]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucuronate + acceptor = UDP + acceptor beta-D-glucuronoside.

Dehydration of methylthio-ribulose-P [GO_0046570]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribulose 1-phosphate = 5-(methylthio)-2,3-dioxopentyl phosphate + H2O.

dehydroascorbic acid transport [GO_0070837]

The directed movement of dehydroascorbate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Dehydroascorbate, 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2,3,4(5H)-trione, is an oxidized form of vitamin C.

dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase activity [GO_0045547]

Catalysis of the condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate in the cis-configuration to form dehydrodolichyl diphosphate.

delayed rectifier potassium channel activity [GO_0005251]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a potassium ion by a delayed rectifying voltage-gated channel. A delayed rectifying current-voltage relation is one where channel activation kinetics are time-dependent, and inactivation is slow.

delta(3,5)-delta(2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase activity [GO_0051750]

Catalysis of the reaction: a (3E,5Z)-dienoyl-CoA = a (2E,4E)-(5,6-saturated)-dienoyl-CoA.

demethylase activity [GO_0032451]

Catalysis of the removal of a methyl group from a substrate.

denatured protein binding [GO_0031249]

Binding to a denatured protein. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘unfolded protein binding ; GO:0051082’, which usually refers to proteins that have not yet folded into their active states. Denatured proteins once were in their correct functional conformations, but have become incorrectly folded, and often form aggregates.

dendrite [GO_0030425]

A neuron projection that has a short, tapering, morphology. Dendrites receive and integrate signals from other neurons or from sensory stimuli, and conduct nerve impulses towards the axon or the cell body. In most neurons, the impulse is conveyed from dendrites to axon via the cell body, but in some types of unipolar neuron, the impulse does not travel via the cell body.

dendrite cytoplasm [GO_0032839]

All of the contents of a dendrite, excluding the surrounding plasma membrane.

dendritic tree [GO_0097447]

The entire complement of dendrites for a neuron, consisting of each primary dendrite and all its branches.

deoxyhypusine monooxygenase activity [GO_0019135]

Catalysis of the reaction: protein N6-(4-aminobutyl)-L-lysine + donor-H2 + O2 = protein N6-((R)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-L-lysine + acceptor + H2O.

deoxyribonuclease I activity [GO_0004530]

Catalysis of the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA to 5'-phosphodinucleotide and 5'-phosphooligonucleotide end products.

dephospho-CoA kinase activity [GO_0004140]

Catalysis of the reaction: 3'-dephospho-CoA + ATP = ADP + CoA + 2 H+.

dephosphorylation [GO_0016311]

The process of removing one or more phosphoric (ester or anhydride) residues from a molecule.

Dephosphorylation of AKT by PP2A [GO_0008195]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-phosphate + H2O = a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol + phosphate.

Dephosphorylation of CD3-zeta by PD-1 bound phosphatases [GO_0004725]

Catalysis of the reaction: protein tyrosine phosphate + H2O = protein tyrosine + phosphate.

Dephosphorylation of phospho-Cdh1 [GO_0004721]

Catalysis of the reaction: a phosphoprotein + H2O = a protein + phosphate. Together with protein kinases, these enzymes control the state of phosphorylation of cellular proteins and thereby provide an important mechanism for regulating cellular activity.

DERA cleaves dR5P to GA3P and CH3CHO [GO_0004139]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2-deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate = D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + acetaldehyde.

dermal bone morphogenesis [GO_0061972]

The process in which bone which forms superficially in the organism are generated and organized.

dermatome development [GO_0061054]

The progression of the dermatome over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dermatome is the portion of a somite that will form skin.

descending aorta development [GO_0035906]

The progression of the descending aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system from the arch of aorta to the point where it divides into the common iliac arteries. In a two-pass circulatory system blood passes twice through the heart to supply the body once.

descending aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035911]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the descending aorta are generated and organized. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system from the arch of aorta to the point where it divides into the common iliac arteries. In a two-pass circulatory system blood passes twice through the heart to supply the body once.

deSUMOylase activity [GO_0016929]

An thiol-dependent isopeptidase activity that cleaves SUMO from a target protein to which it is conjugated.

detection of abiotic stimulus [GO_0009582]

The series of events in which an (non-living) abiotic stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of biotic stimulus [GO_0009595]

The series of events in which a biotic stimulus, one caused or produced by a living organism, is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of calcium ion [GO_0005513]

The series of events in which a calcium ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of carbon dioxide [GO_0003031]

The series of events in which a carbon dioxide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus [GO_0009593]

The series of events in which a chemical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050907]

The series of events in which a chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_0001580]

The series of events required for a bitter taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050968]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of salty taste [GO_0001583]

The series of events required for a salty taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell [GO_0050911]

The series of events involved in the perception of smell in which an olfactory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sour taste [GO_0001581]

The series of events required for a sour taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_0001582]

The series of events required for a sweet taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste [GO_0050912]

The series of events involved in the perception of taste in which a gustatory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of umami taste [GO_0046535]

The series of events required for a umami taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal. Umami taste is the savory taste of meats and other foods that are rich in glutamates.

detection of cold stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0120169]

The series of events in which a cold stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of external biotic stimulus [GO_0098581]

The series of events in which an external biotic stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal. An external biotic stimulus is defined as one caused or produced by a living organism other than the one being stimulated.

detection of external stimulus [GO_0009581]

The series of events in which an external stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of high humidity [GO_0098516]

The series of events in which high humidity is detected and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of high humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098514]

The series of events in which a high humidity stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal as a part of the sensory detection of high humidity.

detection of hot stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0120168]

The series of events in which a hot stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of humidity [GO_0098513]

The series of events in which a humidity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098512]

The series of events in which a humidity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of humidity.

detection of hydrogen ion [GO_0003030]

The series of events in which a hydrogen ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of light stimulus [GO_0009583]

The series of events in which a light stimulus (in the form of photons) is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of light stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050962]

The series of events in which a light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of light.

detection of light stimulus involved in visual perception [GO_0050908]

The series of events involved in visual perception in which a light stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of low humidity [GO_0098517]

The series of events in which low humidity is detected and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of low humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098515]

The series of events in which a low humidity stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal as a part of the sensory detection of low humidity.

detection of mechanical stimulus [GO_0050982]

The series of events by which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in equilibrioception [GO_0050973]

The series of events involved in equilibrioception in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. During equilibrioception, mechanical stimuli may be in the form of input from pressure receptors or from the labyrinth system of the inner ears.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050974]

The series of events in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050966]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sound [GO_0050910]

The series of events involved in the perception of sound vibration in which the vibration is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_0050976]

The series of events involved in the perception of touch in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of wind [GO_0071066]

The series of events involved in the perception of wind in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of molecule of fungal origin [GO_0032491]

The series of events in which a stimulus from a molecule of fungal origin is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of osmotic stimulus [GO_0043575]

The series of events in which a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of solutes outside the organism or cell is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of pH by chemoreceptor signaling [GO_0003022]

The process in which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors.

detection of pheromone [GO_0043695]

The series of events in which a pheromone stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus [GO_0051606]

The series of events in which a stimulus is received by a cell or organism and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050906]

The series of events involved in sensory perception in which a sensory stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0062149]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus [GO_0016048]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus (hot or cold) is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050961]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050965]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0050960]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of visible light [GO_0009584]

The series of events in which a visible light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. A visible light stimulus is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived visually by an organism; for organisms lacking a visual system, this can be defined as light with a wavelength within the range 380 to 780 nm.

detoxification [GO_0098754]

Any process that reduces or removes the toxicity of a toxic substance. These may include transport of the toxic substance away from sensitive areas and to compartments or complexes whose purpose is sequestration of the toxic substance.

detoxification of inorganic compound [GO_0061687]

Any process that reduces or removes the toxicity of inorganic compounds. These include transport of such compounds away from sensitive areas and to compartments or complexes whose purpose is sequestration of inorganic compounds.

detoxification of nitrogen compound [GO_0051410]

Any process that reduces or removes the toxicity of nitrogenous compounds which are dangerous or toxic. This includes the aerobic conversion of toxic compounds to harmless substances.

deubiquitinase activator activity [GO_0035800]

Binds to and increases the activity of a deubiquitinase.

deubiquitinase activity [GO_0101005]

An isopeptidase activity that cleaves ubiquitin from a target protein to which it is conjugated. There are two main classes of deubiquitinating enzymes: cysteine proteases (i.e., thiol dependent) and metalloproteases.

development of primary female sexual characteristics [GO_0046545]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the primary female sexual characteristics over time, from their formation to the mature structure. The primary female sexual characteristics are the ovaries, and they develop in response to sex hormone secretion.

development of primary sexual characteristics [GO_0045137]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the primary sexual characteristics over time, from their formation to the mature structures. The primary sexual characteristics are the testes in males and the ovaries in females and they develop in response to sex hormone secretion.

developmental cell growth [GO_0048588]

The growth of a cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from one condition to another.

developmental growth [GO_0048589]

The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell, where the increase in size or mass has the specific outcome of the progression of the organism over time from one condition to another.

developmental growth involved in morphogenesis [GO_0060560]

The increase in size or mass of an anatomical structure that contributes to the structure attaining its shape.

developmental induction [GO_0031128]

A developmental process involving two tissues in which one tissue (the inducer) produces a signal that directs cell fate commitment of cells in the second tissue (the responder).

developmental maturation [GO_0021700]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an anatomical structure, cell or cellular component to attain its fully functional state.

developmental pigmentation [GO_0048066]

The developmental process that results in the deposition of coloring matter in an organism, tissue or cell.

developmental process [GO_0032502]

A biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an integrated living unit: an anatomical structure (which may be a subcellular structure, cell, tissue, or organ), or organism over time from an initial condition to a later condition.

developmental process involved in reproduction [GO_0003006]

A developmental process in which a progressive change in the state of some part of an organism, germline or somatic, specifically contributes to its ability to form offspring.

DHAP is converted to 1-acyl GO3P by GNPAT [GO_0016287]

Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + glycerone phosphate = 1-acylglycerone 3-phosphate + CoA.

DHDDS:NUS1 elongates E,E-FPP with (n)IPPP to form pPPP [GO_0016765]

Catalysis of the transfer of an alkyl or aryl (but not methyl) group from one compound (donor) to another (acceptor).

diacylglycerol binding [GO_0019992]

Binding to a diacylglycerol, a diester of glycerol and two fatty acids.

diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activity [GO_0004142]

Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-choline + 1,2-diacylglycerol = CMP + a phosphatidylcholine.

diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase activity [GO_0000810]

Catalysis of the reaction: a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-diphosphate + H2O = a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + phosphate.

diacylglycerol kinase activity [GO_0004143]

Catalysis of the reaction: NTP + 1,2-diacylglycerol = NDP + 1,2-diacylglycerol-3-phosphate.

diaphragm development [GO_0060539]

The progression of the diaphragm over time from its initial formation to the mature structure. The diaphragm is a skeletal muscle that is responsible for contraction and expansion of the lungs.

diaphragm morphogenesis [GO_0060540]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the diaphragm are generated and organized.

dibutyl phthalate binding [GO_0035275]

Binding to dibutyl phthalate, C(16)H(22)O(4).

dicarboxylic acid biosynthetic process [GO_0043650]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of dicarboxylic acids, any organic acid containing two carboxyl (-COOH) groups.

dicarboxylic acid catabolic process [GO_0043649]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of dicarboxylic acids, any organic acid containing two carboxyl (-COOH) groups.

dicarboxylic acid metabolic process [GO_0043648]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving dicarboxylic acids, any organic acid containing two carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

dicarboxylic acid transport [GO_0006835]

The directed movement of dicarboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

digestion [GO_0007586]

The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

Digestion of 1-6 linkages of limit dextrins to yield maltose, maltotriose, longer maltosides, and glucose [GO_0004558]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-(1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.

Digestion of linear starch (amylose) by extracellular amylase [GO_0004556]

Catalysis of the endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more alpha-(1->4)-linked D-glucose units.

Digestion of triacylglycerols by extracellular PTL:colipase [GO_0047372]

Catalysis of the reaction: H2O + acylglycerol = a fatty acid + glycerol.

digestive system development [GO_0055123]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the digestive system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The digestive system is the entire structure in which digestion takes place. Digestion is all of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

digestive system process [GO_0022600]

A physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

digestive tract development [GO_0048565]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the digestive tract over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The digestive tract is the anatomical structure through which food passes and is processed.

digestive tract morphogenesis [GO_0048546]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the digestive tract are generated and organized. The digestive tract is the anatomical structure through which food passes and is processed.

dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity [GO_0004742]

Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysyl-[protein] + acetyl-CoA = (R)-N6-(S8-acetyldihydrolipoyl)-L-lysyl-[protein] + CoA.

dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase activity [GO_0004149]

Catalysis of the reaction: succinyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide = CoA + S-succinyldihydrolipoamide.

dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity [GO_0004152]

Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-dihydroorotate + A = AH(2) + orotate.

dihydropterin deaminase activity [GO_0004153]

Catalysis of the reaction: 7,8-dihydropterin + H2O = 7,8-dihydrolumazine + NH3.

dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity [GO_0017113]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5,6-dihydrouracil + NADP+ = uracil + NADPH + H+.

dihydroxyacetone phosphate <=> D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate [GO_0004807]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate = glycerone phosphate.

dioxygenase activity [GO_0051213]

Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which both atoms of oxygen from one molecule of O2 are incorporated into the (reduced) product(s) of the reaction. The two atoms of oxygen may be distributed between two different products.

dipeptidase activity [GO_0016805]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a dipeptide.

dipeptide transmembrane transport [GO_0035442]

The directed movement of a dipeptide across a membrane by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. A dipeptide is a combination of two amino acids linked together by a peptide (-CO-NH-) bond. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

dipeptide transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0071916]

Enables the transfer of a dipeptide from one side of a membrane to the other. A dipeptide is a combination of two amino acids linked together by a peptide (-CO-NH-) bond.

dipeptide transport [GO_0042938]

The directed movement of a dipeptide, a combination of two amino acids by means of a peptide (-CO-NH-) link, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

dipeptidyl-peptidase activity [GO_0008239]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of N-terminal dipeptides from a polypeptide chain.

diphenyl phthalate binding [GO_0035274]

Binding to diphenyl phthalate, C(20)H(14)O(4).

diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinase activity [GO_0033857]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + 1D-myo-inositol 5-diphosphate pentakisphosphate = ADP + 1D-myo-inositol bisdiphosphate tetrakisphosphate.

diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate diphosphatase activity [GO_0008486]

Catalysis of the reaction: diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol polyphosphate + phosphate.

diphosphotransferase activity [GO_0016778]

Catalysis of the transfer of a diphosphate group from one compound (donor) to a another (acceptor).

direct ossification [GO_0036072]

The formation of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance, that does not require the replacement of preexisting tissues.

directional locomotion [GO_0033058]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another along an axis.

disaccharide metabolic process [GO_0005984]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any disaccharide, sugars composed of two monosaccharide units.

disaccharide transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015154]

Enables the transfer of disaccharide from one side of a membrane to the other.

disaccharide transport [GO_0015766]

The directed movement of disaccharides into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Disaccharides are sugars composed of two monosaccharide units.

disordered domain specific binding [GO_0097718]

Binding to a disordered domain of a protein.

Dissociation of cytosolic HSF1:HSP90:HDAC6:PTGES3 upon sensing protein aggregates [GO_0051787]

Binding to a misfolded protein.

disulfide oxidoreductase activity [GO_0015036]

Catalysis of the reaction: substrate with reduced sulfide groups = substrate with oxidized disulfide bonds.

diterpenoid metabolic process [GO_0016101]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving diterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with four isoprene units.

diuretic hormone activity [GO_0008613]

The action characteristic of a diuretic hormone, a peptide hormone that, upon receptor binding, regulates water balance and fluid secretion.

diuretic hormone receptor activity [GO_0008036]

Combining with a diuretic hormone and transmitting the signal to initiate a change in cell activity.

divalent inorganic anion homeostasis [GO_0072505]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of divalent inorganic anions within an organism or cell. Note that this term was split from ‘di-, tri-valent inorganic anion homeostasis ; GO:0055061’ (sibling term ‘trivalent inorganic anion homeostasis’ ; GO:0072506').

divalent inorganic cation homeostasis [GO_0072507]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of divalent cations within an organism or cell. Note that this term was split from ‘di-, tri-valent inorganic cation homeostasis ; GO:0055066’ (sibling term ‘trivalent inorganic cation homeostasis’ ; GO:0072508').

DNA 5'-adenosine monophosphate hydrolase activity [GO_0033699]

Catalysis of the reaction: 5'-AMP-DNA + H2O = AMP + DNA; nucleophilic release of a covalently linked adenylate residue from a DNA strand, leaving a 5' phosphate terminus.

DNA bending complex [GO_1990104]

A protein-DNA complex that contains DNA in combination with a protein which binds to and bends DNA. Often plays a role in DNA compaction.

DNA binding [GO_0003677]

Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

DNA binding, bending [GO_0008301]

The activity of binding selectively and non-covalently to and distorting the original structure of DNA, typically a straight helix, into a bend, or increasing the bend if the original structure was intrinsically bent due to its sequence.

DNA biosynthetic process [GO_0071897]

The cellular DNA metabolic process resulting in the formation of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long unbranched macromolecule formed from one or two strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides, the 3'-phosphate group of each constituent deoxyribonucleotide being joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage to the 5'-hydroxyl group of the deoxyribose moiety of the next one.

DNA conformation change [GO_0071103]

A cellular process that results in a change in the spatial configuration of a DNA molecule. A conformation change can bend DNA, or alter the, twist, writhe, or linking number of a DNA molecule.

DNA damage sensor activity [GO_0140612]

A molecule that recognises toxic DNA structures, for example, double-strand breaks or collapsed replication forks, and initiates a signalling response.

DNA demethylase activity [GO_0035514]

Catalysis of the removal of a methyl group from one or more nucleosides within a DNA molecule.

DNA duplex unwinding [GO_0032508]

The process in which interchain hydrogen bonds between two strands of DNA are broken or ‘melted’, generating a region of unpaired single strands. Note that this term refers to a geometric change in DNA conformation, and should not be confused with ‘DNA topological change ; GO:0006265’.

DNA geometric change [GO_0032392]

The process in which a transformation is induced in the geometry of a DNA double helix, resulting in a change in twist, writhe, or both, but with no change in linking number. Includes the unwinding of double-stranded DNA by helicases. Note that DNA geometric change and DNA topological change (GO:0006265) are distinct, but are usually coupled in vivo.

DNA metabolic process [GO_0006259]

Any cellular metabolic process involving deoxyribonucleic acid. This is one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from one, or more commonly, two, strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides.

DNA packaging [GO_0006323]

Any process in which DNA and associated proteins are formed into a compact, orderly structure.

DNA packaging complex [GO_0044815]

A protein complex that plays a role in the process of DNA packaging.

DNA polymerase activity [GO_0034061]

Catalysis of the reaction: deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1); the synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates in the presence of a nucleic acid template and a 3’hydroxyl group.

DNA polymerase binding [GO_0070182]

Binding to a DNA polymerase.

DNA polymerase processivity factor activity [GO_0030337]

An enzyme regulator activity that increases the processivity of polymerization by DNA polymerase, by allowing the polymerase to move rapidly along DNA while remaining topologically bound to it.

DNA repair [GO_0006281]

The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e.g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.

DNA replication [GO_0006260]

The cellular metabolic process in which a cell duplicates one or more molecules of DNA. DNA replication begins when specific sequences, known as origins of replication, are recognized and bound by initiation proteins, and ends when the original DNA molecule has been completely duplicated and the copies topologically separated. The unit of replication usually corresponds to the genome of the cell, an organelle, or a virus. The template for replication can either be an existing DNA molecule or RNA. DNA biosynthesis is only part of this process. See also the biological process terms ‘DNA-dependent DNA replication ; GO:0006261’ and ‘RNA-dependent DNA replication ; GO:0006278’.

DNA replication origin binding [GO_0003688]

Binding to a DNA replication origin, a unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA replication is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally.

DNA secondary structure binding [GO_0000217]

Binding to a DNA secondary structure element such as a four-way junction, a bubble, a loop, Y-form DNA, or a double-strand/single-strand junction.

DNA synthesis involved in DNA replication [GO_0090592]

Synthesis of DNA that is a part of the process of duplicating one or more molecules of DNA.

DNA synthesis involved in mitochondrial DNA replication [GO_0110166]

Any DNA biosynthetic process that is involved in mitochondrial DNA replication.

DNA synthesis involved in mitotic DNA replication [GO_1904860]

Any DNA biosynthetic process that is involved in mitotic DNA replication.

DNA topoisomerase activity [GO_0003916]

Catalysis of the transient cleavage and passage of individual DNA strands or double helices through one another, resulting a topological transformation in double-stranded DNA.

DNA topoisomerase binding [GO_0044547]

Binding to a DNA topoisomerase.

DNA topoisomerase type I (single strand cut, ATP-independent) activity [GO_0003917]

Catalysis of a DNA topological transformation by transiently cleaving one DNA strand at a time to allow passage of another strand; changes the linking number by +1 per catalytic cycle. Note that a further distinction, between type IA and type IB topoisomerases, is based on sequence or structural similarity between gene products that possess type I catalytic activity.

DNA topoisomerase type II (double strand cut, ATP-hydrolyzing) activator activity [GO_0072587]

Binds to and increases the activity of ATP-hydrolyzing DNA topoisomerase. DNA topoisomerase (ATP-hydrolyzing) regulator activity catalyzes a DNA topological transformation by transiently cleaving a pair of complementary DNA strands to form a gate through which a second double-stranded DNA segment is passed, after which the severed strands in the first DNA segment are rejoined; product release is coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis; changes the linking number in multiples of 2.

DNA topoisomerase type II (double strand cut, ATP-hydrolyzing) activity [GO_0003918]

Catalysis of a DNA topological transformation by transiently cleaving a pair of complementary DNA strands to form a gate through which a second double-stranded DNA segment is passed, after which the severed strands in the first DNA segment are rejoined, driven by ATP hydrolysis. The enzyme changes the linking number in multiples of 2.

DNA topoisomerase type II (double strand cut, ATP-hydrolyzing) inhibitor activity [GO_0008657]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of ATP-hydrolyzing DNA topoisomerase. ATP-hydrolyzing DNA topoisomerase catalyzes the DNA topological transformation by transiently cleaving a pair of complementary DNA strands to form a gate through which a second double-stranded DNA segment is passed, after which the severed strands in the first DNA segment are rejoined; product release is coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis; changes the linking number in multiples of 2.

DNA topoisomerase type II (double strand cut, ATP-hydrolyzing) regulator activity [GO_0072586]

Binds to and modulates the activity of ATP-hydrolyzing DNA topoisomerase. DNA topoisomerase (ATP-hydrolyzing) regulator activity catalyzes a DNA topological transformation by transiently cleaving a pair of complementary DNA strands to form a gate through which a second double-stranded DNA segment is passed, after which the severed strands in the first DNA segment are rejoined; product release is coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis; changes the linking number in multiples of 2.

DNA translocase activity [GO_0015616]

Generation of movement along a single- or double-stranded DNA molecule, driven by ATP hydrolysis. Note that some gene products that possess DNA translocase activity, such as members of the FtsK/SpoIIIE family, can be fixed in place by interactions with other components of the cell; the relative movement between the protein and DNA bound to it results in movement of the DNA within the cell, often across a membrane.

DNA transport [GO_0051027]

The directed movement of RNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication [GO_0006268]

The process in which interchain hydrogen bonds between two strands of DNA are broken or ‘melted’, generating unpaired template strands for DNA replication. Note that this term refers to a geometric change in DNA conformation, and should not be confused with ‘DNA topological change ; GO:0006265’.

DNA-binding transcription activator activity [GO_0001216]

A DNA-binding transcription factor activity that activates or increases transcription of specific gene sets. For usage guidance, see comment in GO:0003700 ; DNA-binding transcription factor activity.

DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific [GO_0001228]

A DNA-binding transcription factor activity that activates or increases transcription of specific gene sets transcribed by RNA polymerase II. For usage guidance, see comment in GO:0003700 ; DNA-binding transcription factor activity.

DNA-binding transcription factor activity [GO_0003700]

A transcription regulator activity that modulates transcription of gene sets via selective and non-covalent binding to a specific double-stranded genomic DNA sequence (sometimes referred to as a motif) within a cis-regulatory region. Regulatory regions include promoters (proximal and distal) and enhancers. Genes are transcriptional units, and include bacterial operons. Usage guidance: Most DNA-binding transcription factors do not have enzymatic activity. The presence of specific DNA-binding domains known to be present in DNA-binding transcription factors (HOX, GATA etc) should be used to help decide whether a protein is a DNA binding transcription factor or a coregulator. If a protein has an enzymatic activity (for example, ubiquitin ligase, histone acetyl transferase) and no known DNA binding domain, consider annotating to GO:0003712 transcription coregulator activity. Special care should be taken with proteins containing zinc fingers, Myb/SANT and ARID domains, since only a subset of proteins containing these domains directly and selectively bind to regulatory DNA motifs in cis-regulatory regions.

DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific [GO_0000981]

A DNA-binding transcription factor activity that modulates the transcription of specific gene sets transcribed by RNA polymerase II. For usage guidance, see comment in GO:0003700 ; DNA-binding transcription factor activity.

DNA-binding transcription factor binding [GO_0140297]

Binding to a DNA-binding transcription factor, a protein that interacts with a specific DNA sequence (sometimes referred to as a motif) within the regulatory region of a gene to modulate transcription.

DNA-binding transcription repressor activity [GO_0001217]

A DNA-binding transcription factor activity that represses or decreases the transcription of specific gene sets. For usage guidance, see comment in GO:0003700 ; DNA-binding transcription factor activity.

DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific [GO_0001227]

A DNA-binding transcription factor activity that represses or decreases the transcription of specific gene sets transcribed by RNA polymerase II. For usage guidance, see comment in GO:0003700 ; DNA-binding transcription factor activity.

DNA-DNA tethering activity [GO_0106260]

Bridging together two regions of a DNA molecule.

DNA-templated DNA replication [GO_0006261]

A DNA replication process that uses parental DNA as a template for the DNA-dependent DNA polymerases that synthesize the new strands.

DNA-templated transcription [GO_0006351]

The synthesis of an RNA transcript from a DNA template.

DNA-templated transcription termination [GO_0006353]

The completion of transcription: the RNA polymerase pauses, the RNA-DNA hybrid dissociates, followed by the release of the RNA polymerase from its DNA template.

DNA/RNA helicase activity [GO_0033677]

Unwinding of a DNA/RNA duplex, i.e. a double helix in which a strand of DNA pairs with a complementary strand of RNA, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

dolichyl pyrophosphate Man9GlcNAc2 alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase activity [GO_0042281]

Catalysis of the addition of the first glucose residue to the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor for N-linked glycosylation; the transfer of glucose from dolichyl phosphate glucose (Dol-P-Glc) on to the lipid-linked oligosaccharide Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol.

dopamine beta-monooxygenase activity [GO_0004500]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-ascorbate + dopamine + O2 = (R)-noradrenaline + dehydroascorbate + H2O.

dopamine binding [GO_0035240]

Binding to dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter formed by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase from 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine.

dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity [GO_0004952]

Combining with the neurotransmitter dopamine to initiate a change in cell activity.

dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go [GO_0001591]

Combining with the neurotransmitter dopamine and activating adenylate cyclase via coupling to Gi/Go to initiate a change in cell activity.

dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gs [GO_0001588]

Combining with the neurotransmitter dopamine and activating adenylate cyclase via coupling to Gs to initiate a change in cell activity.

dopamine receptor binding [GO_0050780]

Binding to a dopamine receptor.

dopamine receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007212]

The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a dopamine receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.

dopamine secretion [GO_0014046]

The regulated release of dopamine by a cell. Dopamine is a catecholamine and a precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system but it is also produced peripherally and acts as a hormone.

dopamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061527]

The regulated release of dopamine by a cell in which the dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

dopamine transport [GO_0015872]

The directed movement of dopamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.

dopamine uptake [GO_0090494]

The directed movement of dopamine into a cell.

dopamine:sodium symporter activity [GO_0005330]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: dopamine(out) + Na+(out) + Cl-(out)= dopamine(in) + Na+(in) + Cl-(in).

dopaminechrome tautomerase activity [GO_0106417]

Catalysis of the reaction: dopaminechrome = 5,6-dihydroxyindole.

dormancy process [GO_0022611]

A developmental process in which dormancy (sometimes called a dormant state) is induced, maintained or broken. Dormancy is a suspension of most physiological activity and growth that can be reactivated. In plants and animals, dormancy may be a response to environmental conditions such as seasonality or extreme heat, drought, or cold. In plants, dormancy may involve the formation of dormant buds, and may be preceded by the senescence of plant parts such as leaves in woody plants or most of the shoot system in herbaceous perennials. The exit from dormancy in vascular plants is marked by resumed growth of buds and/or growth of vascular cambium.

dorsal aorta development [GO_0035907]

The progression of the dorsal aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.

dorsal aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035912]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the dorsal aorta are generated and organized. The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.

dorsal/ventral axis specification [GO_0009950]

The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the dorsal/ventral axis. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

dorsal/ventral pattern formation [GO_0009953]

The regionalization process in which the areas along the dorsal/ventral axis are established that will lead to differences in cell differentiation. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

double-stranded DNA 3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity [GO_0008311]

Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 3' terminus of a double-stranded DNA molecule.

double-stranded DNA binding [GO_0003690]

Binding to double-stranded DNA.

double-stranded DNA exodeoxyribonuclease activity [GO_0008309]

Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' or 3' terminus of a double-stranded DNA molecule.

double-stranded DNA helicase activity [GO_0036121]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate, in the presence of double-stranded DNA; drives the unwinding of a DNA helix.

double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity [GO_0003726]

Catalysis of the reaction: adenosine + H2O = inosine + NH3, in a double-stranded RNA molecule.

double-stranded RNA binding [GO_0003725]

Binding to double-stranded RNA.

double-stranded RNA-specific ribonuclease activity [GO_0032296]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in double-stranded RNA molecules.

double-stranded telomeric DNA binding [GO_0003691]

Binding to double-stranded telomere-associated DNA.

DPH5 transfers four methyl groups from AdoMet to aminocarboxypropyl EEF2 [GO_0004164]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-aminopropyl)-L-histidine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-(methylammonio)propyl)-L-histidine.

DPH6 ligates ammonium to diphthine-EEF2 [GO_0017178]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + diphthine + NH4 = ADP + diphthamide + H+ + phosphate.

dUTP diphosphatase activity [GO_0004170]

Catalysis of the reaction: dUTP + H2O = dUMP + H+ + diphosphate.

dynactin binding [GO_0034452]

Binding to a dynactin complex; a large protein complex that activates dynein-based motor activity.

dynein complex binding [GO_0070840]

Binding to a dynein complex, a protein complex that contains two or three dynein heavy chains and several light chains, and has microtubule motor activity.

dynein heavy chain binding [GO_0045504]

Binding to a heavy chain of the dynein complex.

dynein intermediate chain binding [GO_0045505]

Binding to an intermediate chain of the dynein complex.

dynein light chain binding [GO_0045503]

Binding to a light chain of the dynein complex.

dynein light intermediate chain binding [GO_0051959]

Binding to a light intermediate chain of the dynein complex.

E-box binding [GO_0070888]

Binding to an E-box, a DNA motif with the consensus sequence CANNTG that is found in the promoters of a wide array of genes expressed in neurons, muscle and other tissues.

ecdysis-triggering hormone activity [GO_0008255]

The action characteristic of ecdysis-triggering hormone, a peptide hormone that, upon receptor binding, initiates pre-ecdysis and ecdysis (i.e. cuticle shedding) through direct action on the central nervous system.

ecdysone binding [GO_0035100]

Binding to 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone). Ecdysone is an ecdysteroid produced by the prothoracic glands of immature insects and the ovaries of adult females, which stimulates growth and molting.

ecdysone oxidase activity [GO_0047875]

Catalysis of the reaction: Ecdysone + O2 = 3-dehydroecdysone + H2O2.

ECI2 isomerizes 3Z-enoyl-CoA to 2E-enoyl-CoA [GO_0004165]

Catalysis of the reactions: a (3Z)-enoyl-CoA = a 4-saturated (2E)-enoyl-CoA or a (3E)-enoyl-CoA = a 4-saturated (2E)-enoyl-CoA.

eclosion [GO_0007562]

The emergence of an adult insect from a pupa case.

eclosion rhythm [GO_0008062]

The timing of the emergence of the adult fly from its pupal case, which usually occurs at dawn.

ectoderm development [GO_0007398]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ectoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In animal embryos, the ectoderm is the outer germ layer of the embryo, formed during gastrulation.

ectoderm formation [GO_0001705]

The formation of ectoderm during gastrulation.

ectodermal cell differentiation [GO_0010668]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features of an ectodermal cell. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

ectodermal digestive tract development [GO_0007439]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ectodermal digestive tract over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The ectodermal digestive tract includes those portions that are derived from ectoderm.

ectodermal placode development [GO_0071696]

The progression of an ectodermal placode over time from its initial formation until its mature state. An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm.

ectodermal placode formation [GO_0060788]

The developmental process in which an ectodermal placode forms. An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm.

ectodermal placode morphogenesis [GO_0071697]

The process in which the anatomical structures of an ectodermal placode are generated and organized. An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm.

Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 7 (ENPP7) hydrolyses sphingomyelin [GO_0004767]

Catalysis of the reaction: H2O + sphingomyelin = ceramide + choline phosphate + H+.

ectopic germ cell programmed cell death [GO_0035234]

Programmed cell death of an errant germ line cell that is outside the normal migratory path or ectopic to the gonad. This is an important mechanism of regulating germ cell survival within the embryo.

eEF1A complexes with GTP [GO_0019001]

Binding to a guanyl nucleotide, consisting of guanosine esterified with (ortho)phosphate.

efflux transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015562]

Enables the transfer of a specific substance or related group of substances from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell across a membrane.

egg chorion [GO_0042600]

A protective, noncellular membrane that surrounds the eggs of various animals including insects and fish. Note that this term does not refer to the extraembryonic membrane surrounding the embryo of amniote vertebrates as this is an anatomical structure and is therefore not covered by GO.

egg coat [GO_0035805]

A specialized extracellular matrix that surrounds the plasma membrane of the ovum of animals. The egg coat provides structural support and can play an essential role in oogenesis, fertilization and early development.

eIF2 activation [GO_0003743]

Functions in the initiation of ribosome-mediated translation of mRNA into a polypeptide.

elastic fiber [GO_0071953]

An supramolecular fiber that consists of an insoluble core of polymerized tropoelastin monomers and a surrounding mantle of microfibrils. Elastic fibers provide elasticity and recoiling to tissues and organs, and maintain structural integrity against mechanical strain.

elastic fiber assembly [GO_0048251]

Assembly of the extracellular matrix fibers that enables the matrix to recoil after transient stretching.

electron transfer activity [GO_0009055]

Any molecular entity that serves as an electron acceptor and electron donor in an electron transport chain. An electron transport chain is a process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Note that this term should only be be used for electron transfer that generates a transmembrane electrochemical gradient, e.g. components of the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chain.

Electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome c of complex III [GO_0008121]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: CoQH2 + 2 ferricytochrome c = CoQ + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+.

electron transport chain [GO_0022900]

A process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors.

electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase activity [GO_0004174]

Catalysis of the reaction: a ubiquinone + reduced [electron-transfer flavoprotein] = a ubiquinol + H+ + oxidized [electron-transfer flavoprotein].

Elongation of gamma-lenolenoyl-CoA to dihomo-gamma-lenolenoyl-CoA [GO_0009922]

Catalysis of the reaction: fatty acid (C-16 or longer) + 2-C = fatty acid (C-16 or longer + 2-C).

Elongation Of The Telomeric Chromosome End [GO_0003720]

Catalysis of the reaction: deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1). Catalyzes extension of the 3'- end of a DNA strand by one deoxynucleotide at a time using an internal RNA template that encodes the telomeric repeat sequence.

embryo development [GO_0009790]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.

embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching [GO_0009792]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo over time, from zygote formation until the end of the embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic life stage is organism-specific and may be somewhat arbitrary; for mammals it is usually considered to be birth, for insects the hatching of the first instar larva from the eggshell.

embryonic camera-type eye development [GO_0031076]

The process occurring during the embryonic phase whose specific outcome is the progression of the eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

embryonic camera-type eye formation [GO_0060900]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a camera-type eye from unspecified neurectoderm. This process begins with the differentiation of cells that form the optic field and ends when the optic cup has attained its shape.

embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO_0048596]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized during embryonic development.

embryonic cleavage [GO_0040016]

The first few specialized divisions of an activated animal egg.

embryonic development via the syncytial blastoderm [GO_0001700]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation through syncytial blastoderm to the hatching of the first instar larva. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

embryonic epithelial tube formation [GO_0001838]

The morphogenesis of an embryonic epithelium into a tube-shaped structure.

embryonic eye morphogenesis [GO_0048048]

The process occurring in the embryo by which the anatomical structures of the post-embryonic eye are generated and organized.

embryonic heart tube development [GO_0035050]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryonic heart tube over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The heart tube forms as the heart rudiment from the heart field.

embryonic heart tube formation [GO_0003144]

The process that gives rise to the embryonic heart tube. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The embryonic heart tube is an epithelial tube that will give rise to the mature heart.

embryonic heart tube formation via epithelial folding [GO_0003145]

The process that gives rise to the embryonic heart tube by the cells of the heart field along a linear axis.

embryonic heart tube morphogenesis [GO_0003143]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the embryonic heart tube are generated and organized. The embryonic heart tube is an epithelial tube that will give rise to the mature heart.

embryonic morphogenesis [GO_0048598]

The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized during the embryonic phase. The embryonic phase begins with zygote formation. The end of the embryonic phase is organism-specific. For example, it would be at birth for mammals, larval hatching for insects and seed dormancy in plants.

embryonic organ development [GO_0048568]

Development, taking place during the embryonic phase, of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Development pertains to the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a structure over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

embryonic organ morphogenesis [GO_0048562]

Morphogenesis, during the embryonic phase, of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

embryonic placenta development [GO_0001892]

The embryonically driven process whose specific outcome is the progression of the placenta over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The placenta is an organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin.

embryonic placenta morphogenesis [GO_0060669]

The process in which the embryonic placenta is generated and organized.

embryonic process involved in female pregnancy [GO_0060136]

A reproductive process occurring in the embryo or fetus that allows the embryo or fetus to develop within the mother.

endocardial cell development [GO_0060958]

The progression of an endocardial cell over time, from its formation to the mature cell. An endocardial cell is a specialized endothelial cell that makes up the endocardium portion of the heart.

endocardial cell differentiation [GO_0060956]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of an endocardial cell. An endocardial cell is a specialized endothelial cell that makes up the endocardium portion of the heart. The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardial cushion development [GO_0003197]

The progression of a cardiac cushion over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

endocardial cushion formation [GO_0003272]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an endocardial cushion. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO_0003203]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the endocardial cushion is generated and organized. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

endocardial endothelium development [GO_0061147]

The progression of the endocardial endothelium over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardium development [GO_0003157]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endocardium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardium formation [GO_0060214]

Formation of the endocardium of the heart. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardium morphogenesis [GO_0003160]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the endocardium is generated and organized. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endochondral bone growth [GO_0003416]

The increase in size or mass of an endochondral bone that contributes to the shaping of the bone.

endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0060350]

The process in which bones are generated and organized as a result of the conversion of initial cartilaginous anlage into bone.

endocrine hormone secretion [GO_0060986]

The regulated release of a hormone into the circulatory system.

endocrine pancreas development [GO_0031018]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endocrine pancreas over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endocrine pancreas is made up of islet cells that produce insulin, glucagon and somatostatin.

endocrine process [GO_0050886]

The process that involves the secretion of or response to endocrine hormones. An endocrine hormone is a hormone released into the circulatory system.

endocrine system development [GO_0035270]

Progression of the endocrine system over time, from its formation to a mature structure. The endocrine system is a system of hormones and ductless glands, where the glands release hormones directly into the blood, lymph or other intercellular fluid, and the hormones circulate within the body to affect distant organs. The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathryoids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands which include the ovaries and testes.

endocytosis [GO_0006897]

A vesicle-mediated transport process in which cells take up external materials or membrane constituents by the invagination of a small region of the plasma membrane to form a new membrane-bounded vesicle.

endodeoxyribonuclease activator activity [GO_0140656]

Binds to and increases the activity of an endodeoxyribonuclease.

endodeoxyribonuclease activity [GO_0004520]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within deoxyribonucleic acid by creating internal breaks.

endoderm development [GO_0007492]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endoderm is the innermost germ layer that develops into the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs and associated tissues.

endoderm formation [GO_0001706]

The formation of the endoderm during gastrulation.

endodermal cell differentiation [GO_0035987]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an endoderm cell, a cell of the inner of the three germ layers of the embryo.

endodermal-mesodermal cell signaling [GO_0003133]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from endodermal cells to mesodermal cells.

endomembrane system [GO_0012505]

A collection of membranous structures involved in transport within the cell. The main components of the endomembrane system are endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles, cell membrane and nuclear envelope. Members of the endomembrane system pass materials through each other or though the use of vesicles.

endomembrane system organization [GO_0010256]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the endomembrane system.

endomitotic cell cycle [GO_0007113]

A mitotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are replicated and sister chromatids separate, but spindle formation, nuclear membrane breakdown and nuclear division do not occur, resulting in an increased number of chromosomes in the cell. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘abortive mitotic cell cycle ; GO:0033277’. Although abortive mitosis is sometimes called endomitosis, GO:0033277 refers to a process in which a mitotic spindle forms and chromosome separation begins.

endonuclease activity, active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids and producing 5'-phosphomonoesters [GO_0016893]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids by creating internal breaks to yield 5'-phosphomonoesters. Note that this activity can catalyze cleavage of DNA or RNA.

endonucleolytic cleavage involved in rRNA processing [GO_0000478]

Any endonucleolytic cleavage involved in the conversion of a primary ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript into a mature rRNA molecule. Some endonucleolytic cleavages produce the mature end, while others are a step in the process of generating the mature end from the pre-rRNA.

endonucleolytic cleavage involved in tRNA processing [GO_1905267]

Any endonucleolytic RNA phosphodiester bond hydrolysis that is involved in tRNA processing.

endopeptidase activator activity [GO_0061133]

Binds to and increases the activity of an endopeptidase.

endopeptidase inhibitor activity [GO_0004866]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of an endopeptidase.

endopeptidase regulator activity [GO_0061135]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a peptidase, any enzyme that hydrolyzes nonterminal peptide bonds in polypeptides.

endoplasmic reticulum signal peptide binding [GO_0030942]

Binding to an endoplasmic reticulum signal peptide, a specific peptide sequence that acts as a signal to localize the protein within the endoplasmic reticulum.

endopolyphosphatase activity [GO_0000298]

Catalysis of the reaction: polyphosphate + n H2O = (n+1) oligophosphate. The product contains 4 or 5 phosphate residues.

endoribonuclease activity, cleaving miRNA-paired mRNA [GO_0090624]

Catalysis of the endonucleolytic cleavage of the mRNA in a double-stranded RNA molecule formed by the base pairing of an mRNA with an miRNA.

endoribonuclease activity, cleaving siRNA-paired mRNA [GO_0070551]

Catalysis of the endonucleolytic cleavage of the mRNA in a double-stranded RNA molecule formed by the base pairing of an mRNA with an siRNA, yielding 5'-phosphomonoesters.

endoribonuclease activity, producing 5'-phosphomonoesters [GO_0016891]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within ribonucleic acids by creating internal breaks to yield 5'-phosphomonoesters.

endoribonuclease inhibitor activity [GO_0060698]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of endoribonuclease.

endothelial cell apoptotic process [GO_0072577]

Any apoptotic process in an endothelial cell. An endothelial cell comprises the outermost layer or lining of anatomical structures and can be squamous or cuboidal.

endothelial cell development [GO_0001885]

The progression of an endothelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0045446]

The process in which a mesodermal, bone marrow or neural crest cell acquires specialized features of an endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell. A layer of such cells lines the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.

endothelial cell morphogenesis [GO_0001886]

The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs during the differentiation of an endothelial cell.

endothelial cell proliferation [GO_0001935]

The multiplication or reproduction of endothelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. Endothelial cells are thin flattened cells which line the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.

endothelial tube formation [GO_0120331]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an endothelial tube.

endothelial tube morphogenesis [GO_0061154]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tube are generated and organized from an endothelium. Endothelium refers to the layer of cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and serous cavities, and is derived from bone marrow or mesoderm. Corneal endothelium is a special case, derived from neural crest cells.

endothelium development [GO_0003158]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an endothelium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Endothelium refers to the layer of cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and serous cavities, and is derived from bone marrow or mesoderm. Corneal endothelium is a special case, derived from neural crest cells.

energy derivation by oxidation of organic compounds [GO_0015980]

The chemical reactions and pathways by which a cell derives energy from organic compounds; results in the oxidation of the compounds from which energy is released.

energy reserve metabolic process [GO_0006112]

The chemical reactions and pathways by which a cell derives energy from stored compounds such as fats or glycogen.

energy taxis [GO_0009453]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to physical parameters involved in energy generation, such as light, oxygen, and oxidizable substrates.

eNoSC dimethylates histone H3 at lysine-9 [GO_0046974]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + histone H3 L-lysine (position 9) = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + histone H3 N6-methyl-L-lysine (position 9). This reaction is the addition of a methyl group to the lysine residue at position 9 of the histone H3 protein.

enteric smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_0035645]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a smooth muscle cell of the intestine.

enteroendocrine cell differentiation [GO_0035883]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of an enteroendocrine cell. Enteroendocrine cells are hormonally active epithelial cells in the gut that constitute the diffuse neuroendocrine system.

entrainment of circadian clock [GO_0009649]

The synchronization of a circadian rhythm to environmental time cues such as light.

entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod [GO_0043153]

The synchronization of a circadian rhythm to photoperiod, the intermittent cycle of light (day) and dark (night).

entry into diapause [GO_0055115]

The dormancy process that results in entry into diapause. Diapause is a neurohormonally mediated, dynamic state of low metabolic activity. Associated characteristics of this form of dormancy include reduced morphogenesis, increased resistance to environmental extremes, and altered or reduced behavioral activity. Full expression develops in a species-specific manner, usually in response to a number of environmental stimuli that precede unfavorable conditions. Once diapause has begun, metabolic activity is suppressed even if conditions favorable for development prevail. Once initiated, only certain stimuli are capable of releasing the organism from this state, and this characteristic is essential in distinguishing diapause from hibernation.

entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0055116]

The dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

enucleate erythrocyte development [GO_0048822]

The process aimed at the progression of an enucleate erythrocyte over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

enucleate erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0043353]

The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specialized features of an erythrocyte without a nucleus. An example of this process is found in Mus musculus.

enucleate erythrocyte maturation [GO_0043354]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an enucleate erythrocyte to attain its fully functional state. An enucleate erythrocyte is an erythrocyte without a nucleus.

envelope [GO_0031975]

A multilayered structure surrounding all or part of a cell; encompasses one or more lipid bilayers, and may include a cell wall layer; also includes the space between layers.

Envoplakin, periplakin, involucrin, SPR binding mediated by TGM1 crosslinking [GO_0003810]

Catalysis of the reaction: protein glutamine + alkylamine = protein N5-alkylglutamine + NH3. This reaction is the formation of the N6-(L-isoglutamyl)-L-lysine isopeptide, resulting in cross-linking polypeptide chains; the gamma-carboxamide groups of peptidyl-glutamine residues act as acyl donors, and the 6-amino-groups of peptidyl-lysine residues act as acceptors, to give intra- and intermolecular N6-(5-glutamyl)lysine cross-links.

enzyme activator activity [GO_0008047]

Binds to and increases the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

enzyme binding [GO_0019899]

Binding to an enzyme, a protein with catalytic activity.

enzyme inhibitor activity [GO_0004857]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

enzyme regulator activity [GO_0030234]

Binds to and modulates the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway [GO_0007167]

The series of molecular signals initiated by an extracellular ligand binding to a receptor on the surface of the target cell, where the receptor possesses catalytic activity or is closely associated with an enzyme such as a protein kinase, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

enzyme-substrate adaptor activity [GO_0140767]

An adaptor that brings together an enzyme and its substrate. Adaptors recruit the substrate to its enzyme, thus contributing to substrate selection and specificity.

EP300,CREBBP acetylate FOXO4 [GO_0061733]

Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + lysine in peptide = CoA + N-acetyl-lysine-peptide.

ephrin receptor activity [GO_0005003]

Combining with an ephrin receptor ligand to initiate a change in cell activity.

ephrin receptor binding [GO_0046875]

Binding to an ephrin receptor.

ephrin receptor signaling pathway [GO_0048013]

The series of molecular signals initiated by ephrin binding to its receptor, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

epicardium morphogenesis [GO_1905223]

The developmental process by which an epicardium is generated and organized.

epidermal cell differentiation [GO_0009913]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis.

epidermal cell division [GO_0010481]

Any process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis, into daughter cells.

epidermal growth factor binding [GO_0048408]

Binding to epidermal growth factor.

epidermal growth factor receptor activity [GO_0005006]

Combining with an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand and transmitting the signal across the plasma membrane to initiate a change in cell activity.

epidermal growth factor receptor binding [GO_0005154]

Binding to an epidermal growth factor receptor.

epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007173]

The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to the tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR (ERBB1) on the surface of a cell. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

epidermal stem cell homeostasis [GO_0036334]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of the steady-state number of epidermal stem cells within a population of cells.

epidermis development [GO_0008544]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the epidermis over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The epidermis is the outer epithelial layer of an animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.

epidermis morphogenesis [GO_0048730]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the epidermis are generated and organized. The epidermis is the outer epithelial layer of an animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.

epigenetic maintenance of chromatin in transcription-competent conformation [GO_0045815]

An epigenetic process that capacitates gene expression by remodelling of chromatin by either modifying the chromatin fiber, the nucleosomal histones, or the DNA. This regulation is exemplified by members of the trithorax group, which maintain the active state of homeotic gene transcription. Do not confuse with GO:0140673 ; co-transcriptional chromatin reassembly, which describes the reforming of chromatin after RNA polymerase II passage.

epithelial cell apoptotic process [GO_1904019]

Any apoptotic process in an epithelial cell.

epithelial cell development [GO_0002064]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two-dimensional sheet with a free surface.

epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0030855]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell, any of the cells making up an epithelium.

epithelial cell differentiation involved in embryonic placenta development [GO_0060671]

The process in which a trophoblast cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell of the placental labyrinthine layer.

epithelial cell maturation [GO_0002070]

The developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an epithelial cell to attain its fully functional state. An epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two-dimensional sheet with a free surface.

epithelial cell morphogenesis [GO_0003382]

The change in form that occurs when an epithelial cell progresses from its initial formation to its mature state.

epithelial cell morphogenesis involved in gastrulation [GO_0003381]

The change in form that occurs when an epithelial cell progresses from it initial formation to its mature state, contributing to the process of gastrulation.

epithelial cell proliferation [GO_0050673]

The multiplication or reproduction of epithelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. Epithelial cells make up the epithelium, the covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities. It consists of cells joined by small amounts of cementing substances.

epithelial cell proliferation involved in liver morphogenesis [GO_0072575]

The multiplication or reproduction of epithelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the liver.

epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0060502]

The multiplication or reproduction of epithelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the lung.

epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO_0001837]

A transition where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.

epithelial tube branching involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0060441]

The process in which a highly ordered sequence of patterning events generates the branched epithelial tubes of the lung, consisting of reiterated combinations of bud outgrowth, elongation, and dichotomous subdivision of terminal units.

epithelial tube formation [GO_0072175]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an epithelial tube.

epithelial tube morphogenesis [GO_0060562]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tube are generated and organized from an epithelium. Epithelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues, with tube shape and organization varying from the single-celled excretory organ in Caenorhabditis elegans to the branching trees of the mammalian kidney and insect tracheal system.

epithelium development [GO_0060429]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an epithelium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An epithelium is a tissue that covers the internal or external surfaces of an anatomical structure.

EPM2A dimer dephosphorylates phosphoglycogen-GYG2 [GO_0019203]

Catalysis of the reaction: carbohydrate phosphate + H2O = carbohydrate + phosphate.

Equilibrative transport (export) of nucleosides and free bases by solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters), member 1 [GO_0005337]

Enables the transfer of a nucleoside, a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide) from one side of a membrane to the other.

equilibrioception [GO_0050957]

The series of events required for an organism to receive an orientational stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Equilibrioception refers to a combination of processes by which an organism can perceive its orientation with respect to gravity. In animals, stimuli come from labyrinth system of the inner ears, monitoring the direction of motion; visual stimuli, with information on orientation and motion; pressure receptors, which tell the organism which body surfaces are in contact with the ground; and proprioceptive cues, which report which parts of the body are in motion.

ER retention sequence binding [GO_0046923]

Binding to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence, a specific peptide sequence that ensures a protein is retained within the ER.

ERBB signaling pathway [GO_0038127]

The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to a member of the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases on the surface of a cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

erythrocyte apoptotic process [GO_1902217]

Any apoptotic process in an erythrocyte.

erythrocyte development [GO_0048821]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an erythrocyte over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0030218]

The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte.

erythrocyte homeostasis [GO_0034101]

Any process of regulating the production and elimination of erythrocytes within an organism.

erythrocyte maturation [GO_0043249]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an erythrocyte to attain its fully functional state.

ESD dimer hydrolyses S-FGSH to GSH [GO_0018738]

Catalysis of the reaction: S-formylglutathione + H2O = formate + glutathione + H+.

esophagus development [GO_1903702]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an esophagus over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

establishment of cell polarity [GO_0030010]

The specification and formation of anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns.

establishment of cell polarity involved in ameboidal cell migration [GO_0003365]

The specification and formation of anisotropic intracellular organization that contributes to the self-propelled directed movement of an ameboid cell.

establishment of cell polarity involved in gastrulation cell migration [GO_0003379]

The specification and formation of anisotropic intracellular organization that contributes to the self-propelled directed movement of an ameboid cell taking part in gastrulation.

establishment of chromosome localization [GO_0051303]

The directed movement of a chromosome to a specific location.

establishment of epithelial cell polarity [GO_0090162]

The specification and formation of anisotropic intracellular organization of an epithelial cell.

establishment of Golgi localization [GO_0051683]

The directed movement of the Golgi to a specific location.

establishment of localization [GO_0051234]

Any process that localizes a substance or cellular component. This may occur via movement, tethering or selective degradation.

establishment of localization in cell [GO_0051649]

Any process, occuring in a cell, that localizes a substance or cellular component. This may occur via movement, tethering or selective degradation.

establishment of neuroblast polarity [GO_0045200]

The specification and formation of the apicobasal polarity of a neuroblast cell, a progenitor of the central nervous system.

establishment of organelle localization [GO_0051656]

The directed movement of an organelle to a specific location.

establishment of pigment granule localization [GO_0051905]

The directed movement of a pigment granule to a specific location.

establishment of planar polarity [GO_0001736]

Coordinated organization of groups of cells in the plane of an epithelium, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

establishment of protein localization [GO_0045184]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location.

establishment of protein localization to chromatin [GO_0071169]

The directed movement of a protein to a part of a chromosome that is organized into chromatin.

establishment of protein localization to chromosome [GO_0070199]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location on a chromosome.

establishment of protein localization to extracellular region [GO_0035592]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location within the extracellular region.

establishment of protein localization to membrane [GO_0090150]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a membrane.

establishment of protein localization to organelle [GO_0072594]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location on or in an organelle. Encompasses establishment of localization in the membrane or lumen of a membrane-bounded organelle.

establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane [GO_0061951]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a plasma membrane.

establishment of protein localization to vacuole [GO_0072666]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a vacuole.

establishment of RNA localization [GO_0051236]

The directed movement of RNA to a specific location.

establishment of tissue polarity [GO_0007164]

Coordinated organization of groups of cells in a tissue, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

establishment of vesicle localization [GO_0051650]

The directed movement of a vesicle to a specific location.

establishment or maintenance of cell polarity [GO_0007163]

Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns.

establishment or maintenance of cytoskeleton polarity [GO_0030952]

Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of polarized cytoskeletal structures.

establishment or maintenance of cytoskeleton polarity involved in ameboidal cell migration [GO_0003371]

Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of polarized cytoskeletal structures that contribute to the cell polarity of a migrating ameboid cell.

establishment or maintenance of cytoskeleton polarity involved in gastrulation [GO_0003380]

Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of polarized cytoskeletal structures that contribute to the cell polarity of a migrating ameboid cell taking part in gastrulation.

establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity [GO_0030951]

Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of polarized microtubule-based cytoskeletal structures.

establishment or maintenance of neuroblast polarity [GO_0045196]

Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of the apicobasal polarity of a neuroblast cell, a progenitor of the central nervous system.

establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient [GO_0010248]

The directed movement of ions to establish or maintain an electrochemical gradient across a membrane by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

ETA is phosphorylated to PETA by CHK/ETNK [GO_0004305]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + ethanolamine = ADP + 2 H+ + phosphoethanolamine.

ethanolamine-phosphate phospho-lyase activity [GO_0050459]

Catalysis of the reaction: H2O + phosphoethanolamine = acetaldehyde + NH4 + phosphate.

ethanolaminephosphotransferase activity [GO_0004307]

Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-ethanolamine + 1,2-diacylglycerol = CMP + a phosphatidylethanolamine.

euchromatin binding [GO_1990188]

Binding to euchromatin, a dispersed and relatively uncompacted form of chromatin.

eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding [GO_0008190]

Binding to eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, a polypeptide factor involved in the initiation of ribosome-mediated translation.

eukaryotic initiation factor 4G binding [GO_0031370]

Binding to eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, a polypeptide factor involved in the initiation of ribosome-mediated translation.

eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 binding [GO_0071074]

Binding to eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2, a protein complex involved in the initiation of ribosome-mediated translation.

Exchange of oxygen with sulfur in MoCo [GO_0008265]

Catalysis of the sulfurylation of the desulfo form of molybdenum cofactor (MoCo), a cofactor required for the activity of some enzymes, such as aldehyde oxidase.

excitatory chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0098976]

Synaptic transmission that results in an excitatory postsynaptic potential.

excitatory postsynaptic potential [GO_0060079]

A process that leads to a temporary increase in postsynaptic potential due to the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. The flow of ions that causes an EPSP is an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) and makes it easier for the neuron to fire an action potential.

excretion [GO_0007588]

The elimination by an organism of the waste products that arise as a result of metabolic activity. These products include water, carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogenous compounds.

execution phase of apoptosis [GO_0097194]

A stage of the apoptotic process that starts with the controlled breakdown of the cell through the action of effector caspases or other effector molecules (e.g. cathepsins, calpains etc.). Key steps of the execution phase are rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.

EXO1 interacting with MSH2:MSH6 excises single strand DNA containing a mismatch [GO_0008409]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids by removing nucleotide residues from the 5' end.

exocrine pancreas development [GO_0031017]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the exocrine pancreas over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The exocrine pancreas produces and store zymogens of digestive enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen in the acinar cells.

exocrine system development [GO_0035272]

Progression of the exocrine system over time, from its formation to a mature structure. The exocrine system is a system of hormones and glands, where the glands secrete straight to a target site via ducts or tubes. The human exocrine system includes the salivary glands, sweat glands and many glands of the digestive system.

exocytic process [GO_0140029]

The cellular processes that contribute to exocytosis.

exocytic vesicle [GO_0070382]

A transport vesicle that mediates transport from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane, and fuses with the plasma membrane to release various cargo molecules, such as proteins or hormones, by exocytosis.

exocytic vesicle membrane [GO_0099501]

The lipid bilayer surrounding an exocytic vesicle.

exocytosis [GO_0006887]

A process of secretion by a cell that results in the release of intracellular molecules (e.g. hormones, matrix proteins) contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle. Exocytosis can occur either by full fusion, when the vesicle collapses into the plasma membrane, or by a kiss-and-run mechanism that involves the formation of a transient contact, a pore, between a granule (for exemple of chromaffin cells) and the plasma membrane. The latter process most of the time leads to only partial secretion of the granule content. Exocytosis begins with steps that prepare vesicles for fusion with the membrane (tethering and docking) and ends when molecules are secreted from the cell.

exodeoxyribonuclease activity [GO_0004529]

Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' or 3' terminus of a DNA molecule.

exodeoxyribonuclease activity, producing 5'-phosphomonoesters [GO_0016895]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within deoxyribonucleic acids by removing nucleotide residues from the 3' or 5' end to yield 5' phosphomonoesters.

exonuclease activity [GO_0004527]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids by removing nucleotide residues from the 3' or 5' end.

exonuclease activity, active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids and producing 5'-phosphomonoesters [GO_0016796]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids by removing nucleotide residues from the 3' or 5' end to yield 5' phosphomonoesters. Note that this activity can catalyze cleavage of DNA or RNA.

exonucleolytic trimming involved in rRNA processing [GO_0000459]

Exonucleolytic digestion of a pre-rRNA molecule in the process to generate a mature rRNA molecule.

exopeptidase activity [GO_0008238]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond not more than three residues from the N- or C-terminus of a polypeptide chain, in a reaction that requires a free N-terminal amino group, C-terminal carboxyl group or both.

exoribonuclease activator activity [GO_0044692]

Binds to and increases the activity of an exoribonuclease.

exoribonuclease activity [GO_0004532]

Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' or 3' terminus of an RNA molecule.

exoribonuclease activity, producing 5'-phosphomonoesters [GO_0016896]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within ribonucleic acids by removing nucleotide residues from the 3' or 5' end to yield 5' phosphomonoesters.

exosomal secretion [GO_1990182]

The process whereby a membrane-bounded vesicle is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane.

export from cell [GO_0140352]

The directed movement of some substance from a cell, into the extracellular region. This may occur via transport across the plasma membrane or via exocytosis.

Exportin-5 recognizes 3' overhang of pre-miRNA [GO_0003723]

Binding to an RNA molecule or a portion thereof.

external encapsulating structure [GO_0030312]

A structure that lies outside the plasma membrane and surrounds the entire cell or cells. This does not include the periplasmic space. The outer membrane (of gram negative bacteria) or cell wall (of yeast or Gram positive bacteria) are defined as parts of this structure, see ‘external encapsulating structure part’.

external encapsulating structure organization [GO_0045229]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of external structures that lie outside the plasma membrane and surround the entire cell.

external genitalia morphogenesis [GO_0035261]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the external genitalia are generated and organized. The external genitalia are the outer sex organs, such as the penis or vulva in mammals.

extracellular amino acid transport [GO_0006860]

The directed extracellular movement of amino acids.

extracellular carbohydrate transport [GO_0006859]

The directed extracellular movement of carbohydrates.

extracellular exosome [GO_0070062]

A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.

extracellular exosome assembly [GO_0071971]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an extracellular vesicular exosome, a membrane-bounded vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Exosomes are defined by their size, which generally ranges from 30 nm to 100 nm.

extracellular exosome biogenesis [GO_0097734]

The assembly and secretion of an extracellular exosome, a membrane-bounded vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane.

extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity [GO_0005230]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens when a specific extracellular ligand has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

extracellular matrix [GO_0031012]

A structure lying external to one or more cells, which provides structural support, biochemical or biomechanical cues for cells or tissues.

extracellular matrix assembly [GO_0085029]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of the extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix binding [GO_0050840]

Binding to a component of the extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix disassembly [GO_0022617]

A process that results in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix organization [GO_0030198]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix organization involved in endocardium development [GO_0061148]

A process which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an extracellular matrix of the endocardium. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

extracellular matrix protein binding [GO_1990430]

Binding to a protein that is part of an extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix structural constituent [GO_0005201]

The action of a molecule that contributes to the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix. Extracellular matrix glycoproteins may be annotated to this term. PMID:24443019

extracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0065010]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and occurring outside the cell.

extracellular negative regulation of signal transduction [GO_1900116]

Any negative regulation of signal transduction that takes place in extracellular region.

extracellular non-membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043264]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, not bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and occurring outside the cell.

extracellular organelle [GO_0043230]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring outside the cell. Includes, for example, extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) and the cellulosomes of anaerobic bacteria and fungi.

extracellular region [GO_0005576]

The space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane. This term covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite. Note that this term is intended to annotate gene products that are not attached to the cell surface. For gene products from multicellular organisms which are secreted from a cell but retained within the organism (i.e. released into the interstitial fluid or blood), consider the cellular component term ‘extracellular space ; GO:0005615’.

extracellular regulation of signal transduction [GO_1900115]

Any regulation of signal transduction that takes place in the extracellular region.

extracellular space [GO_0005615]

That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. Note that for multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term.

extracellular structure organization [GO_0043062]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of structures in the space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane, and also covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite.

extracellular transport [GO_0006858]

The transport of substances that occurs outside cells.

extracellular vesicle [GO_1903561]

Any vesicle that is part of the extracellular region.

extracellular vesicle biogenesis [GO_0140112]

The assembly and secretion a set of components to form an extracellular vesicule, a membrane-bounded vesicle that is released into the extracellular region. Extracellular vesicles include exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, based on the mechanism by which they are released from cells and differentiated based on their size and content.

extracellularly glutamate-gated chloride channel activity [GO_0008068]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a chloride ion by a channel that opens when glutamate is bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. Note that this term represents an activity and not a gene product. Consider also annotating to the molecular function term ‘glutamate receptor activity ; GO:0008066’.

extracellularly glutamate-gated ion channel activity [GO_0005234]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens when glutamate is bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. Note that this term represents an activity and not a gene product. Consider also annotating to the molecular function term ‘glutamate receptor activity ; GO:0008066’.

extraembryonic membrane development [GO_1903867]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an extraembryonic membrane over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

eye development [GO_0001654]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The eye is the organ of sight.

eye morphogenesis [GO_0048592]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized.

eye photoreceptor cell development [GO_0042462]

Development of a photoreceptor, a sensory cell in the eye that reacts to the presence of light. They usually contain a pigment that undergoes a chemical change when light is absorbed, thus stimulating a nerve.

eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0001754]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell, as found in the eye, the primary visual organ of most organisms.

face development [GO_0060324]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a face from an initial condition to its mature state. The face is the ventral division of the head.

face morphogenesis [GO_0060325]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the face are generated and organized. The face is the ventral division of the head.

FAD binding [GO_0071949]

Binding to the oxidized form, FAD, of flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.

FAD transmembrane transport [GO_0035350]

The process in which flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is transported across a membrane. FAD forms the coenzyme of the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in which it functions as an electron acceptor by being reversibly converted to its reduced form. Note that this term is not intended for use in annotating lateral movement within membranes.

FAD transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015230]

Enables the directed movement of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) from one side of a membrane to the other. FAD forms the coenzyme of the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in which it functions as an electron acceptor by being reversibly converted to its reduced form.

FAD transport [GO_0015883]

The directed movement of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. FAD forms the coenzyme of the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in which it functions as an electron acceptor by being reversibly converted to its reduced form.

FANCD2 deubiquitination by USP1:WDR48 [GO_0004843]

An thiol-dependent isopeptidase activity that cleaves ubiquitin from a target protein to which it is conjugated.

fat cell apoptotic process [GO_1904606]

Any apoptotic process in a fat cell.

fat cell differentiation [GO_0045444]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.

fat cell proliferation [GO_0070341]

The multiplication or reproduction of fat cells by cell division, resulting in the expansion of their population. A fat cell is an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.

fatty acid alpha-hydroxylase activity [GO_0080132]

Catalysis of the conversion of a fatty acid to an alpha-hydroxylated fatty acid. A hydroxyl group is added to the second carbon, counted from the carboxyl end, of a fatty acid chain.

fatty acid amide hydrolase activity [GO_0017064]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a fatty acid amide to yield a fatty acid.

fatty acid binding [GO_0005504]

Binding to a fatty acid, an aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.

fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO_0006633]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a fatty acid, any of the aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that can be liberated by hydrolysis from naturally occurring fats and oils. Fatty acids are predominantly straight-chain acids of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, which may be saturated or unsaturated; branched fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids also occur, and very long chain acids of over 30 carbons are found in waxes.

fatty acid derivative binding [GO_1901567]

Binding to fatty acid derivative.

fatty acid ligase activity [GO_0015645]

Catalysis of the ligation of a fatty acid to an acceptor, coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP.

fatty acid metabolic process [GO_0006631]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.

fatty acid transport [GO_0015908]

The directed movement of fatty acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.

fatty-acyl-CoA binding [GO_0000062]

Binding to a fatty-acyl-CoA, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in thiolester linkage with a fatty acyl group.

fatty-acyl-CoA reductase (alcohol-forming) activity [GO_0080019]

Catalysis of the reaction: a very long chain fatty acyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ = a very long chain primary alcohol + NADP+ + CoA.

fatty-acyl-CoA transport [GO_0015916]

The directed movement of fatty acyl coenzyme A into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Fatty acyl coenzyme A is an acyl group linked to 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine (coenzyme A).

FECH binds Fe2+ to PRIN9 to form heme [GO_0004325]

Catalysis of the reaction: heme B (protoheme) + H+ = Fe(2+) + protoporphyrin IX.

feeding behavior [GO_0007631]

Behavior associated with the intake of food. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

female gamete generation [GO_0007292]

Generation of the female gamete; specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and along with a male gamete takes part in sexual reproduction.

female germ cell nucleus [GO_0001674]

The nucleus of the female germ cell, a reproductive cell in females.

female germ-line stem cell asymmetric division [GO_0048132]

The self-renewing division of a germline stem cell in the female gonad, to produce a daughter stem cell and a daughter germ cell, which will divide to form the female gametes.

female gonad development [GO_0008585]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the female gonad over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

female gonad morphogenesis [GO_0061040]

The process in which a female gonad is generated and organized.

female mating behavior [GO_0060180]

The specific behavior of a female organism that is associated with reproduction.

female meiosis chromosome segregation [GO_0016321]

The cell cycle process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during the meiotic cell cycle in a female.

female meiotic nuclear division [GO_0007143]

A cell cycle process by which the cell nucleus divides as part of a meiotic cell cycle in the female germline. Note that female germ lines can be found in female or hermaphroditic organisms, so this term can be used to annotate gene products from hermaphrodites such as those of C. elegans. See also the biological process term ‘meiotic nuclear division; GO:0140013’.

female pregnancy [GO_0007565]

The set of physiological processes that allow an embryo or foetus to develop within the body of a female animal. It covers the time from fertilization of a female ovum by a male spermatozoon until birth.

female sex differentiation [GO_0046660]

The establishment of the sex of a female organism by physical differentiation.

ferric iron binding [GO_0008199]

Binding to a ferric iron ion, Fe(III).

ferrous iron binding [GO_0008198]

Binding to a ferrous iron ion, Fe(II).

ferrous iron transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015093]

Enables the transfer of ferrous iron (Fe(II) or Fe2+) ions from one side of a membrane to the other.

fertilization [GO_0009566]

The union of gametes of opposite sexes during the process of sexual reproduction to form a zygote. It involves the fusion of the gametic nuclei (karyogamy) and cytoplasm (plasmogamy).

FFAT motif binding [GO_0033149]

Binding to a FFAT motif, a short motif containing diphenylalanine in an acidic tract that targets proteins to the cytosolic surface of the ER and to the nuclear membrane by binding directly to members of the VAP (VAMP-associated protein) protein family.

FGAR + L-Glutamine + ATP + H2O => FGAM + L-Glutamate + ADP + Pi [GO_0004642]

Catalysis of the reaction: N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O = 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate + ADP + 2 H+ + phosphate.

Fgd1 reactivates F420 [GO_0016614]

Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which a CH-OH group act as a hydrogen or electron donor and reduces a hydrogen or electron acceptor.

FGFR1-associated PI3K phosphorylates PIP2 to PIP3 [GO_0046934]

Catalysis of the reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + ATP = a 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate + ADP + 2 H+.

fibrillar collagen trimer [GO_0005583]

Any triple helical collagen trimer that forms fibrils.

fibrin multimer, crosslinked:tissue plasminogen activator (one-chain) + plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 -> fibrin multimer, crosslinked:tissue plasminogen activator (one-chain):plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [GO_0004867]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a serine-type endopeptidase.

fibrinogen binding [GO_0070051]

Binding to fibrinogen, a highly soluble hexameric glycoprotein complex that is found in blood plasma and is converted to fibrin by thrombin in the coagulation cascade.

fibrinogen complex [GO_0005577]

A highly soluble, elongated protein complex found in blood plasma and involved in clot formation. It is converted into fibrin monomer by the action of thrombin. In the mouse, fibrinogen is a hexamer, 46 nm long and 9 nm maximal diameter, containing two sets of nonidentical chains (alpha, beta, and gamma) linked together by disulfide bonds.

fibroblast apoptotic process [GO_0044346]

Any apoptotic process in a fibroblast, a connective tissue cell which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

fibroblast growth factor binding [GO_0017134]

Binding to a fibroblast growth factor.

fibroblast growth factor receptor activity [GO_0005007]

Combining with a fibroblast growth factor receptor ligand and transmitting the signal across the plasma membrane to initiate a change in cell activity. Note that this term represents an activity and not a gene product, and should only be used when the receptor binds the ligand FGF. For receptors that bind other growth factors, consider annotating to terms under ‘transmembrane signaling receptor activity ; GO:0004888.

fibroblast growth factor receptor binding [GO_0005104]

Binding to a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Note that branchless is the Drosophila gene encoding fibroblast growth factor.

fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO_0008543]

The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a fibroblast growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.

fibroblast proliferation [GO_0048144]

The multiplication or reproduction of fibroblast cells, resulting in the expansion of the fibroblast population.

fibroblast proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0061385]

The multiplication or reproduction of fibroblasts, resulting in the expansion of a fibroblast population that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

filamin binding [GO_0031005]

Binding to a filamin, any member of a family of high molecular mass cytoskeletal proteins that crosslink actin filaments to form networks and stress fibers. Filamins contain an amino-terminal alpha-actinin-like actin binding domain, which is followed by a rod-domain composed of 4 to 24 100-residue repetitive segments including a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain.

FK506 binding [GO_0005528]

Binding to a 23-membered macrolide lactone FK506.

flap endonuclease activity [GO_0048256]

Catalysis of the cleavage of a flap structure in DNA, but not other DNA structures; processes the ends of Okazaki fragments in lagging strand DNA synthesis.

flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [GO_0050660]

Binding to FAD, flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in either the oxidized form, FAD, or the reduced form, FADH2.

flavin-linked sulfhydryl oxidase activity [GO_0016971]

Catalysis of the formation of disulfide bridges in proteins using FAD as the electron acceptor.

flight [GO_0060361]

Self-propelled movement of an organism from one location to another through the air, usually by means of active wing movement.

flippase activity [GO_0140327]

Catalysis of the movement of lipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaftlet of a membrane, using energy from the hydrolysis of ATP. Nomenclature note. Flippases and floppases are ATP-dependent transbilayer lipid translocators. According to an extensively used, though not universal, nomenclature, they catalyze lipid transfer towards the inward monolayer (flippases) or towards the outward monolayer (floppases). Scramblases are ATP-independent, non-selective, inducing non-specific transbilayer movements across the membrane. The direction of the translocation should be taken into account for annotation (from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaftlet of a membrane).

fluid transport [GO_0042044]

The directed movement of substances that are in liquid form in normal living conditions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

FMN binding [GO_0010181]

Binding to flavin mono nucleotide. Flavin mono nucleotide (FMN) is the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.

FMN transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0044610]

Enables the directed movement of flavine mononucleotide (FMN) from one side of a membrane to the other.

FN3KRP phosphorylates PsiAm, RibAm [GO_0016301]

Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule. Note that this term encompasses all activities that transfer a single phosphate group; although ATP is by far the most common phosphate donor, reactions using other phosphate donors are included in this term.

folic acid transport [GO_0015884]

The directed movement of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Folic acid is widely distributed as a member of the vitamin B complex and is essential for the synthesis of purine and pyrimidines.

foregut morphogenesis [GO_0007440]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the foregut are generated and organized.

formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity [GO_0018467]

Catalysis of the reaction: formaldehyde + H2O + NAD+ = formate + 2 H+ + NADH.

formate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015499]

Enables the transfer of formate from one side of a membrane to the other. Formate is also known as methanoate, the anion HCOO- derived from methanoic (formic) acid.

formate transport [GO_0015724]

The directed movement of formate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase activity [GO_0004329]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + formate + tetrahydrofolate = ADP + phosphate + 10-formyltetrahydrofolate.

formation of anatomical boundary [GO_0048859]

The process in which the limits of an anatomical structure are generated. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

formation of animal organ boundary [GO_0010160]

The regionalization process that specifies animal organ primordium boundaries resulting in a restriction of organogenesis to a limited spatial domain and keeping the organ separate from surrounding tissues.

formation of primary germ layer [GO_0001704]

The formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm during gastrulation.

formation of translation initiation ternary complex [GO_0001677]

Formation of a complex between aminoacylated initiator methionine tRNA, GTP, and initiation factor 2 (either eIF2 in eukaryotes, or IF2 in prokaryotes). In prokaryotes, fMet-tRNA (initiator) is used rather than Met-tRNA (initiator).

forward locomotion [GO_0043056]

Anterior movement of an organism, following the direction of the head of the animal.

four-way junction DNA binding [GO_0000400]

Binding to a DNA segment containing four-way junctions, also known as Holliday junctions, a structure where two DNA double strands are held together by reciprocal exchange of two of the four strands, one strand each from the two original helices.

frizzled binding [GO_0005109]

Binding to a frizzled (fz) receptor.

fructokinase activity [GO_0008865]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + D-fructose = ADP + D-fructose 6-phosphate.

fructose transmembrane transport [GO_0015755]

The directed movement of fructose into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Fructose exists in a open chain form or as a ring compound. D-fructose is the sweetest of the sugars and is found free in a large number of fruits and honey.

fructose-6-phosphate binding [GO_0070095]

Binding to fructose 6-phosphate.

fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity [GO_0004332]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate = glycerone phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

FTMT 24mer oxidises 4Fe2+ to 4Fe(3+)O(OH) [GO_0004322]

Catalysis of the reaction: 4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + O2 = 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O.

fucosyltransferase activity [GO_0008417]

Catalysis of the transfer of a fucosyl group to an acceptor molecule, typically another carbohydrate or a lipid.

Fumarate + H2O <=> (S)-Malate [GO_0004333]

Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-malate = fumarate + H2O.

FUOM isomerises alpha-Fuc to beta-Fuc [GO_0016857]

Catalysis of a reaction that alters the configuration of one or more chiral centers in a carbohydrate molecule.

FUT4,5,9,(10,11) transfer Fuc to Type 2 chains to form LeX [GO_0046920]

Catalysis of the transfer of an L-fucosyl group from GDP-beta-L-fucose to an acceptor molecule to form an alpha-(1->3) linkage.

G protein activity [GO_0003925]

A molecular function regulator that cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular processes. Intrinsic GTPase activity returns the G protein to its GDP-bound state. The return to the GDP-bound state can be accelerated by the action of a GTPase-activating protein (GAP).

G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor activity [GO_0016907]

Combining with acetylcholine and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007213]

A G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway initiated by a ligand binding to an acetylcholine receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1904065]

Any G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway that is involved in positive regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission.

G protein-coupled adenosine receptor activity [GO_0001609]

Combining with adenosine and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G protein-coupled adenosine receptor signaling pathway [GO_0001973]

The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a receptor binding to extracellular adenosine and transmitting the signal to a heterotrimeric G-protein complex to initiate a change in cell activity.

G protein-coupled amine receptor activity [GO_0008227]

Combining with an extracellular amine and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G protein-coupled glutamate receptor activity [GO_0098988]

Combining with glutamate and transmitting a signal from one side of the membrane to the other by activating an associated G-protein, initiating a change in cell activity.

G protein-coupled glutamate receptor binding [GO_0035256]

Binding to a G protein-coupled glutamate receptor (a metabotropic glutamate receptor).

G protein-coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007216]

A G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway initiated by glutamate binding to its receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process.

G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor activity [GO_0099528]

Combining with a neurotransmitter and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor activity involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential [GO_0099579]

A G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor activity, occurring in the postsynaptic membrane, involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential.

G protein-coupled peptide receptor activity [GO_0008528]

Combining with a peptide and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G protein-coupled photoreceptor activity [GO_0008020]

Combining with incidental electromagnetic radiation, particularly visible light, and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G protein-coupled purinergic receptor signaling pathway [GO_0035588]

A G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway initiated by an extracellular purine or purine derivative binding to its receptor, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process.

G protein-coupled receptor activity involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential [GO_0099530]

A G protein-coupled receptor activity occurring in the postsynaptic membrane that is part of a GPCR signaling pathway that positively regulates ion channel activity in the postsynaptic membrane.

G protein-coupled receptor binding [GO_0001664]

Binding to a G protein-coupled receptor.

G protein-coupled receptor kinase activity [GO_0004703]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + G protein-coupled receptor = ADP + G protein-coupled receptor phosphate.

G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007186]

A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The pathway can start from the plasma membrane, Golgi or nuclear membrane.

G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity [GO_0004993]

Combining with the biogenic amine serotonin and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a neurotransmitter and hormone found in vertebrates and invertebrates.

G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway [GO_0098664]

The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a G protein-coupled serotonin receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.

G-protein alpha-subunit binding [GO_0001965]

Binding to a G-protein alpha subunit. The alpha subunit binds a guanine nucleotide.

G-protein beta-subunit binding [GO_0031681]

Binding to a G-protein beta subunit.

G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding [GO_0031683]

Binding to a complex of G-protein beta/gamma subunits.

G-protein coupled receptor activity [GO_0004930]

Combining with an extracellular signal and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

G-quadruplex DNA binding [GO_0051880]

Binding to G-quadruplex DNA structures, in which groups of four guanines adopt a flat, cyclic Hoogsteen hydrogen-bonding arrangement known as a guanine tetrad. The stacking of guanine tetrads results in G-quadruplex DNA structures. G-quadruplex DNA can form under physiological conditions from some G-rich sequences, such as those found in telomeres, immunoglobulin switch regions, gene promoters, fragile X repeats, and the dimerization domain in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome.

G/U mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase activity [GO_0043739]

Catalysis of the removal of uracil from a U*G mispair by the cleavage the N-C1' glycosidic bond between the target damaged DNA base and the deoxyribose sugar. The reaction releases a free uracil and leaves an apyrimidinic (AP) site.

GABA receptor activity [GO_0016917]

Combining with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity. (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate) is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms. See also the molecular function term ‘neurotransmitter receptor activity ; GO:0030594’.

GABA receptor binding [GO_0050811]

Binding to a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate) receptor.

GABA-A receptor activity [GO_0004890]

Combining with the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate) to initiate a change in cell activity. GABA-A receptors function as chloride channels. Note that this term represents an activity and not a gene product. Consider also annotating to the molecular function term ‘chloride channel activity ; GO:0005254’ and ‘inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity ; GO:0005237’.

GABA-gated chloride ion channel activity [GO_0022851]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a chloride ion by a channel that opens when GABA has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

galactose binding [GO_0005534]

Binding to aldohexose galactose (galacto-hexose), a common constituent of many oligo- and polysaccharides.

galactosidase activity [GO_0015925]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of galactosyl compounds, substances containing a group derived from a cyclic form of galactose or a galactose derivative.

galactoside binding [GO_0016936]

Binding to a glycoside in which the sugar group is galactose.

galactosyl beta-1,3 N-acetylgalactosamine beta-1,3-glucuronosyltransferase activity [GO_0046989]

Catalysis of the transfer, in a beta 1,3 linkage, of D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) from UDP-GlcUA to the disaccharide galactosyl beta-1,3 N-acetylgalactosamine, a common component of glycoproteins and glycolipids.

Galactosylation of collagen propeptide hydroxylysines by PLOD3 [GO_0050211]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine = UDP + procollagen 5-(D-galactosyloxy)-L-lysine.

galactosyltransferase activity [GO_0008378]

Catalysis of the transfer of a galactosyl group to an acceptor molecule, typically another carbohydrate or a lipid.

GALE:NAD+ dimer reversibly epimerises UDP-Gal to UDP-Glc [GO_0003978]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose = UDP-galactose.

gall bladder development [GO_0061010]

The progression of the gall bladder over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The gall bladder is a cavitated organ that stores bile.

gamete generation [GO_0007276]

The generation and maintenance of gametes in a multicellular organism. A gamete is a haploid reproductive cell.

gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014051]

The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell or a tissue. The gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain but is also found in several extraneural tissues.

gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061534]

The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell, in which the gamma-aminobutyric acid acts as a neurotransmitter.

gamma-aminobutyric acid transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015185]

Enables the transfer of gamma-aminobutyric acid from one side of a membrane to the other. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is 4-aminobutyrate (GABA).

gamma-aminobutyric acid transport [GO_0015812]

The directed movement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. See also the biological process term ‘neurotransmitter transport ; GO:0006836’.

gamma-aminobutyric acid:sodium:chloride symporter activity [GO_0005332]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: gamma-aminobutyric acid(out) + Na+(out) + Cl-(out) = gamma-aminobutyric acid(in) + Na+(in) + Cl(in). See also the molecular function term ‘neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity ; GO:0005328’.

gamma-glutamyl-peptidase activity [GO_0034722]

Catalysis of the cleavage of a gamma-linked glutamate bond.

gamma-glutamylaminecyclotransferase activity [GO_0061929]

Catalysis of the reaction: epsilon-(L-gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine = L-lysine + 5-oxo-L-proline.

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase activity [GO_0003839]

Catalysis of the reaction: (5-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid = 5-oxoproline + L-amino acid.

gamma-tubulin binding [GO_0043015]

Binding to the microtubule constituent protein gamma-tubulin.

ganglion development [GO_0061548]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a ganglion over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

ganglion formation [GO_0061554]

The process that gives rise to ganglion. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.

ganglion maturation [GO_0061553]

A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for ganglion to attain its fully functional state.

ganglion morphogenesis [GO_0061552]

The process in which the anatomical structures of ganglion are generated and organized.

gap junction channel activity [GO_0005243]

A wide pore channel activity that enables a direct cytoplasmic connection from one cell to an adjacent cell. The gap junction can pass large solutes as well as electrical signals between cells. Gap junctions consist of two gap junction hemi-channels, or connexons, one contributed by each membrane through which the gap junction passes.

gap junction hemi-channel activity [GO_0055077]

A wide pore channel activity that enables the transport of a solute across a membrane via a gap junction hemi-channel. Two gap junction hemi-channels coupled together form a complete gap junction.

gas homeostasis [GO_0033483]

A homeostatic process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of a gas within an organism or cell.

gas transport [GO_0015669]

The directed movement of substances that are gaseous in normal living conditions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

gastric acid secretion [GO_0001696]

The regulated release of gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) by parietal or oxyntic cells during digestion.

gastric mucosal blood circulation [GO_1990768]

The flow of blood through the gastric mucosa of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients and the removal of waste products.

gastro-intestinal system smooth muscle contraction [GO_0014831]

A process in which force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the gastro-intestinal system. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step that is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The gastro-intestinal system generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the mouth to anus, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (liver, pancreas and biliary tract).

gastrulation [GO_0007369]

A complex and coordinated series of cellular movements that occurs at the end of cleavage during embryonic development of most animals. The details of gastrulation vary from species to species, but usually result in the formation of the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

gated channel activity [GO_0022836]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a solute by a channel that opens in response to a specific stimulus.

GCH1 reduces GTP to dihydroneopterin triphosphate [GO_0003934]

Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = formate + 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate.

GDP binding [GO_0019003]

Binding to GDP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate.

GDP metabolic process [GO_0046710]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving GDP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate.

GDP phosphatase activity [GO_0004382]

Catalysis of the reaction: GDP + H2O = GMP + phosphate.

GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase activity [GO_0080048]

Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-alpha-D-glucose + phosphate = alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate + GDP.

GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity [GO_0005092]

Prevents the dissociation of GDP from a GTPase, thereby preventing GTP from binding.

gene expression [GO_0010467]

The process in which a gene’s sequence is converted into a mature gene product (protein or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript and its processing, translation and maturation for protein-coding genes.

gene expression involved in extracellular matrix organization [GO_1901148]

Any gene expression that is involved in extracellular matrix organization. Gene expression includes both transcription to produce an RNA transcript, and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included in gene expression when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.

general transcription initiation factor activity [GO_0140223]

A molecular function required for core promoter activity that mediates the assembly of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme at promoter DNA to form the pre-initiation complex (PIC). General transcription factors (GTFs) bind to and open promoter DNA, initiate RNA synthesis and stimulate the escape of the polymerase from the promoter. Not all subunits of the general transcription factor are necessarily present at all promoters to initiate transcription. GTFs act at each promoter, although the exact subunit composition at individual promoters may vary. Usage guidance: The distinction between general transcription factors and DNA-binding transcription factors is that the latter modulate the selection of which genes are expressed under specific conditions, while general transcription factors are the constitutive machinery required for transcription initiation.

general transcription initiation factor binding [GO_0140296]

Binding to a general transcription initiation factor, a protein that contributes to transcription start site selection and transcription initiation.

generation of neurons [GO_0048699]

The process in which nerve cells are generated. This includes the production of neuroblasts and their differentiation into neurons.

generation of precursor metabolites and energy [GO_0006091]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of precursor metabolites, substances from which energy is derived, and any process involved in the liberation of energy from these substances.

genitalia development [GO_0048806]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the genitalia over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

genitalia morphogenesis [GO_0035112]

The process in which the anatomical structures of genitalia are generated and organized. The genitalia are the organs of reproduction or generation, external and internal.

geranyltranstransferase activity [GO_0004337]

Catalysis of the reaction: geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = 2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl diphosphate + diphosphate. Note that this is the second step in the formation of farnesyl diphosphate. The first step is ‘dimethylallyltransferase activity ; GO:0004161’. Consider also annotating to the biological process term ‘farnesyl diphosphate biosynthetic process ; GO:0045337’.

germ cell development [GO_0007281]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an immature germ cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure (gamete). A germ cell is any reproductive cell in a multicellular organism.

germ cell nucleus [GO_0043073]

The nucleus of a germ cell, a reproductive cell in multicellular organisms.

germ cell proliferation [GO_0036093]

The multiplication or reproduction of germ cells, reproductive cells in multicellular organisms, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.

germ-line stem cell division [GO_0042078]

The self-renewing division of a germline stem cell to produce a daughter stem cell and a daughter germ cell, which will divide to form the gametes.

germarium-derived egg chamber formation [GO_0007293]

Construction of a stage-1 egg chamber in the anterior part of the germarium, from the progeny of germ-line and somatic stem cells. An example of this is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

germline stem cell asymmetric division [GO_0098728]

The self-renewing division of a germline stem cell, to produce a daughter stem cell and a daughter germ cell which will divide to form one or more gametes.

GGT transfers GSH to 16S,17S-epoxy-DHA to form PCTR1 [GO_0004364]

Catalysis of the reaction: R-X + glutathione = H-X + R-S-glutathione. R may be an aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic group; X may be a sulfate, nitrile or halide group.

Gi/o-coupled serotonin receptor activity [GO_0001586]

Combining with serotonin and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activation of the Gi/o subunit of an associated cytoplasmic heterotrimeric G protein complex. The Gi/o subunit subsequently inhibits adenylate cyclase and results in a decrease in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels.

gland development [GO_0048732]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A gland is an organ specialised for secretion.

gland morphogenesis [GO_0022612]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a gland are generated and organized.

glandular epithelial cell development [GO_0002068]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a glandular epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A glandular epithelial cell is a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface exposed to the lumen of a gland.

glandular epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0002067]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a glandular epithelial cell. A glandular epithelial cell is a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface exposed to the lumen of a gland.

glandular epithelial cell maturation [GO_0002071]

The developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a glandular epithelial cell to attain its fully functional state. A glandular epithelial cell is a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface exposed to the lumen of a gland.

Glc6P is isomerised to I3P by ISYNA1 in the cytosol [GO_0004512]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucose 6-phosphate = 1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate. This reaction requires NAD, which dehydrogenates the CHOH group to CO at C-5 of the glucose 6-phosphate, making C-6 into an active methylene, able to condense with the aldehyde at C-1. Finally, the enzyme-bound NADH reconverts C-5 into the CHOH form.

GlcNAc1P is dephosphorylated to UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine [GO_0003977]

Catalysis of the reaction: N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + UTP = diphosphate + UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine.

glial cell apoptotic process [GO_0034349]

Any apoptotic process in a glial cell, a non-neuronal cell of the nervous system.

glial cell development [GO_0021782]

The process aimed at the progression of a glial cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

glial cell differentiation [GO_0010001]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a glial cell.

glial cell growth [GO_0042065]

Growth of glial cells, non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.

glial cell projection [GO_0097386]

A prolongation or process extending from a glial cell.

glial cell proliferation [GO_0014009]

The multiplication or reproduction of glial cells by cell division, resulting in the expansion of their population. Glial cells exist throughout the nervous system, and include Schwann cells, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes among others.

glial cell-neuron signaling [GO_0150098]

Cell-cell signaling that mediates the transfer of information from a glial cell to a neuron. This signaling has been shown to be mediated by various molecules, depending on which glial cells release them, and in which tissues the signalling occurs, e.g. microglial cell-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) in the retina, or microglial cell-derived superoxide ions in the cerebellum.

glioblast division [GO_0048860]

The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a glioblast into daughter cells.

gliogenesis [GO_0042063]

The process that results in the generation of glial cells. This includes the production of glial progenitors and their differentiation into mature glia.

glucagon secretion [GO_0070091]

The regulated release of glucagon from secretory granules in the A (alpha) cells of the pancreas (islets of Langerhans).

glucan biosynthetic process [GO_0009250]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glucans, polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues.

glucan catabolic process [GO_0009251]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glucans, polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues.

glucan metabolic process [GO_0044042]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucans, polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues.

gluconeogenesis [GO_0006094]

The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.

gluconolactonase activity [GO_0004341]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucono-1,5-lactone + H2O = D-gluconate.

glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase activity [GO_0004343]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + CoA + H+.

glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase activity [GO_0004342]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + H2O = beta-D-fructose 6-phosphate + NH4. Note that this function was formerly EC:5.3.1.10.

glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process [GO_0051156]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose 6-phosphate, a monophosphorylated derivative of glucose with the phosphate group attached to C-6.

glucose binding [GO_0005536]

Binding to D- or L-enantiomers of glucose.

glucose catabolic process [GO_0006007]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glucose, the aldohexose gluco-hexose.

glucose homeostasis [GO_0042593]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of glucose within an organism or cell.

glucose metabolic process [GO_0006006]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose, the aldohexose gluco-hexose. D-glucose is dextrorotatory and is sometimes known as dextrose; it is an important source of energy for living organisms and is found free as well as combined in homo- and hetero-oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

glucose transmembrane transport [GO_1904659]

The process in which glucose is transported across a membrane.

glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase activity [GO_0047938]

Catalysis of the reaction: alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate = beta-D-glucose 6-phosphate.

glucose-6-phosphate transmembrane transporter activity [GO_0015152]

Enables the transfer of glucose-6-phosphate from one side of a membrane to the other. Glucose-6-phosphate is a monophosphorylated derivative of glucose with the phosphate group attached to C-6.

glucose-6-phosphate transport [GO_0015760]

The directed movement of glucose-6-phosphate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Glucose-6-phosphate is a monophosphorylated derivative of glucose with the phosphate group attached to C-6.

glucosidase activity [GO_0015926]

Catalysis of the hydrolysis of glucosyl compounds, substances containing a group derived from a cyclic form of glucose or a glucose derivative.

Glucosylation of collagen propeptide hydroxylysines [GO_0033823]

Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + 5-(D-galactosyloxy)-L-lysine-procollagen = UDP + 1,2-D-glucosyl-5-D-(galactosyloxy)-L-lysine-procollagen.

Glucosylceramidase cleaves the glucosidic bond of glucocerebroside to form ceramide [GO_0004348]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine + H2O = D-glucose + N-acylsphingosine.

glucosyltransferase activity [GO_0046527]

Catalysis of the transfer of a glucosyl group to an acceptor molecule, typically another carbohydrate or a lipid.

glutamate 5-kinase activity [GO_0004349]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamate + ATP = L-glutamyl 5-phosphate + ADP + H+.

glutamate binding [GO_0016595]

Binding to glutamate, the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid.

glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity [GO_0004352]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamate + H2O + NAD+ = 2-oxoglutarate + NH3 + NADH + H+.

glutamate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity [GO_0004353]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamate + H2O + NAD(P)+ = 2-oxoglutarate + NH3 + NAD(P)H + H+. Note that this term has a MetaCyc pathway reference as the pathway only has a single step.

glutamate receptor activity [GO_0008066]

Combining with glutamate and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity.

glutamate receptor binding [GO_0035254]

Binding to a glutamate receptor.

glutamate receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007215]

The series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of glutamate to its receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with the regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.

glutamate secretion [GO_0014047]

The controlled release of glutamate by a cell. The glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system.

glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061535]

The controlled release of glutamate by a cell, in which the glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter.

glutamate synthase (NADH) activity [GO_0016040]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2 L-glutamate + NAD+ = 2-oxoglutarate + L-glutamine + H+ + NADH.

glutamate synthase activity [GO_0015930]

Catalysis of the formation of L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate from L-glutamate, using NADH, NADPH or ferredoxin as hydrogen acceptors.

glutamate synthase activity, NAD(P)H as acceptor [GO_0045181]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2 L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NAD(P)H + H+.

glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity [GO_0004350]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + NADP+ + phosphate = L-glutamyl 5-phosphate + H+ + NADPH.

glutamate-ammonia ligase activity [GO_0004356]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamate + ATP + NH3 = L-glutamine + ADP + 2 H+ + phosphate.

glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit binding [GO_0035226]

Binding to the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase.

glutamate-cysteine ligase regulator activity [GO_1990609]

Binds to and modulates the activity of glutamate-cysteine ligase.

glutamate-gated calcium ion channel activity [GO_0022849]

Enables the transmembrane transfer of a calcium ion by a channel that opens when glutamate has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.

glutamate:sodium symporter activity [GO_0015501]

Enables the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: glutamate(out) + Na+(out) = glutamate(in) + Na+(in).

glutamine + H2O => glutamate + NH4+ [GLS] [GO_0004359]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutamine + H2O = L-glutamate + NH3.

glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase activity [GO_0016603]

Catalysis of the reaction: L-glutaminyl-peptide = 5-oxoprolyl-peptide + NH3.

glutathione binding [GO_0043295]

Binding to glutathione; a tripeptide composed of the three amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine.

glutathione biosynthetic process [GO_0006750]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glutathione, the tripeptide glutamylcysteinylglycine, which acts as a coenzyme for some enzymes and as an antioxidant in the protection of sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and other proteins.

glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity [GO_0015038]

Catalysis of the reaction: 2 glutathione + electron acceptor = glutathione disulfide + electron donor.

Glutathione is taken up by the bacterium [GO_1904680]

Enables the transfer of a peptide from one side of a membrane to the other.

glutathione metabolic process [GO_0006749]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glutathione, the tripeptide glutamylcysteinylglycine, which acts as a coenzyme for some enzymes and as an antioxidant in the protection of sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and other proteins; it has a specific role in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxidized ascorbate, and it participates in the gamma-glutamyl cycle.

glutathione oxidoreductase activity [GO_0097573]

Catalysis of the reaction: protein-S-S-glutathione + glutathione-SH = protein-SH + glutathione-S-S-glutathione. Note that this activity is different from GO:0015038 ‘glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity’. See PMID:18992757: “Grxs [glutaredoxins] can also reduce mixed disulfides between proteins or low molecular weight thiols and GSH in reactions that require only their N-terminal active- site cysteine. It is important to note that the reduction of glutathionylated substrates through the monothiol mechanism seems to be the major activity of Grxs; all dithiol Grxs described so far catalyze these reactions, but not all dithiol Grxs catalyze the reduction of protein disulfides by the dithiol mechanism”.

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) (phosphorylating) activity [GO_0043891]

Catalysis of the reaction: D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD(P)+ = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NAD(P)H + H+.

glycerate dehydrogenase activity [GO_0008465]

Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-glycerate + NAD+ = hydroxypyruvate + NADH + H+.

glycerol kinase activity [GO_0004370]

Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + glycerol = sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + ADP + 2 H+.

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (quinone) activity [GO_0004368]

Catalysis of the reaction: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol. Note that enzymes classified as EC:1.1.5.3 have several activities. They should be annotated with the terms GO:0004368, GO:0052590 and GO:0052591.

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity [GO_0047952]

Catalysis of the reaction: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + NAD(P)+ = glycerone phosphate + NAD(P)H + H+.