A midline crossing complex of the synaptic neuropil domains of the adult brain: the ellipsoid body, the fan-shaped body, the three paired noduli, the asymmetrical bodies and the protocerebral bridge. It is closely associated with another paired synaptic neuropil domain, the lateral complex. It lies in the middle of the brain between the pedunculi of the mushroom bodies and is bounded ventrally by the esophagus, dorsally by the pars intercerebralis and laterally by the antenno-glomerular tracts. Some authors’ use of the term ‘central body’ excludes the protocerebral bridge, some usage also excludes the noduli, some exclude the lateral triangles, and historically it has been used to refer to the fan-shaped body alone (Hanesch et al., 1989).
Bilaterally paired neuropil structure situated postero-dorsally in the protocerebrum that functions in olfactory associative learning and memory. The mushroom body is divided into: the calyx, which is closest to the cell body rind and receives sensory interneuron afferents; the pedunculus, which is a thick axon bundle extending from the calyx to the base of the lobes; and the mushroom body lobe system, which consists of a vertical branch composed of two intertwined lobes (alpha and alpha’) and a medial branch consisting of three parallel lobes (beta, beta’ and gamma) (Crittenden et al., 1998; Ito et al., 2014).
Mushroom body (MB) of the larva. It only has two lobes, medial and vertical, in contrast to the adult MB, which has five lobes (Lee et al., 1999). Both lobes are composed of gamma neurons, which are the only Kenyon cells (KCs) present in the newly hatched first instar (Kunz et al., 2012). MB neuroblasts continue to produce new KCs throughout the larval stages (Lee et al., 1999). These new KCs form layers in the larval MB peduncle and lobes, with four distinguishable layers present in the third instar (Kurusu et al., 2002). Three types of KCs can be identified in these layers: embryonic-born gamma type (surface layer), larval-born gamma type (outer and inner layers) and larval-born alpha’/beta’ type (core layer) neurons (Kurusu et al., 2002). During the pupal stage, alpha/beta KCs are produced and the larval MB is remodeled into the adult MB (Lee et al., 1999). The four layers in the pedunculus and lobes were identified by staining with a FasII antibody. The surface layer is partially FasII-negative, the outer and inner layers are FasII-positive and the core is FasII-negative (Selcho et al., 2009; Kurusu et al., 2002).
Block of synaptic neuropil domains in the adult brain located below the superior neuropils, around the level of the mushroom body medial lobe and pedunculus. It includes the antler, clamp, crepine and inferior bridge.
A synaptic neuropil block in the adult brain that lies anterior and lateral to the central complex, with which it is closely associated. Unlike components of the central complex, it is not separated from surrounding neuropils by a glial sheath.
Bilaterally paired neuropil structure situated postero-dorsally in the protocerebrum that functions in olfactory associative learning and memory. The mushroom body is divided into: the calyx, which is closest to the cortex and receives sensory interneuron afferents; the pedunculus, which is a thick axon bundle extending from the calyx to the base of the lobes; and the mushroom body lobe system, which consists of a vertical branch and a medial branch, which have different structures at different life stages (Lee et al., 1999; Ito et al., 2014). This term as defined in Ito et al. (2014) corresponds to both the mushroom body (MB) and calyx (Cal) of Chiang et al., (2011).
Group of synaptic neuropil domains in the adult brain located between the antennal lobe/ventromedial neuropils and above the gnathal ganglia. In addition, it includes one synaptic domain that is part of the ventral cerebral ganglion-the prow. Despite the name, it is intended as a singular noun as in “The United States”.
A block of synaptic neuropil domains in the adult brain arranged in a layer covering the superior (dorsal) surface of the brain. In encompasses the superior intermediate, superior lateral and superior medial protocerebrum. Despite the name, intended as a singular noun as in ‘The United States’.
The tectulum is a distinct subdivision of the thoracic regions of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) (Power, 1948). The region forms a saddle-like structure located dorsally, primarily over the accessory mesothoracic neuropil, spanning the mesothoracic neuromere (MesoNm), and extending into the posteriormost region of the prothoracic neuromere (ProNm) and the anteriormost region of the metathoracic neuromere (MetaNm) (Power, 1948). Its internal boundaries within the VNC can be defined as the dorsal region of the neuropil posterior to the ventral ellipse in the ProNm, but dorsal to the bundles from 12B, 6B, 23 17, 18B in the MesoNm (Shepherd et al., 2016; Court et al., 2020). It extends posteriorly through the MesoNm to the entry point of hemilineage 3A in the MetaNm (Shepherd et al., 2016). It is stratified into the upper, intermediate and lower tectulum (Namiki et al., 2018; Court et al., 2020).
A group of synaptic neuropil domains in the adult brain located below (ventral to) the central complex, behind the lateral accessory lobes and in front of the great commissure. In includes the vest, epaulette and gorget. The ventral complex corresponds to part of the inferior part of the vmpr of Otsuna and Ito (2006) and to most of the ventromedial protocerebrum (VMP) and proximal antennal protocerebrum (PAN) of Chiang et al., (2011) (Ito et al., 2014).
A large mass of synaptic neuropil domains in the anterior brain of the adult, between the antennal lobe and the optic lobe (Ito et al., 2014). It can be divided into an anterior and posterior regions (AVLP and PVLP) (Ito et al., 2014). Currently some uncertainty about whether this is truly protocerebral - may actually be part of deutocerebrum (Strausfeld has characterized it as such). This should be clarified as a result of Volker Hartenstein’s lineage mapping work. The VLP corresponds to almost all of the vlpr of Otsuna and Ito (2006) and to the ventrolateral protocerebrum (VLP) and optic glomerulus (OG) of Chiang et al., (2011) (Ito et al., 2014).
A group of synaptic neuropil domains in the adult brain located above or and lateral to the esophagus, below the mushroom body calyx and inferior neuropils, behind the lateral accessory lobe and medial to the ventrolateral neuropils. Despite the name, intended as a singular noun as in “The United States”.