Uberon is an integrated cross-species anatomy ontology representing a variety of entities classified according to traditional anatomical criteria such as structure, function and developmental lineage. The ontology includes comprehensive relationships to taxon-specific anatomical ontologies, allowing integration of functional, phenotype and expression data.
[1st arch mandibular component; ventral mandibular arch; anatomical entity; embryonic structure; is part of; pharyngeal arch 1]
Mesenchyme that is part of a 1st arch mandibular component.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 1st arch mandibular mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 1st arch mandibular mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme that is part of a pharyngeal arch 1.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 1st arch mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 1st arch mesenchyme.
An ectoderm that is part of a pharyngeal arch 4.
An endoderm that is part of a pharyngeal arch 4.
Mesenchyme that is part of a pharyngeal arch 4.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 4th arch mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 4th arch mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme that is part of a pharyngeal arch 6.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 6th arch mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 6th arch mesenchyme.
The subdivision of the vertebrate body between the thorax and pelvis. The ventral part of the abdomen contains the abdominal cavity and visceral organs. The dorsal part includes the abdominal section of the vertebral column.
A blood vessel that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of connective tissue that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].
An organ or element that is in the abdomen. Examples: spleen, intestine, kidney, abdominal mammary gland.
Set of all muscles in abdomen.
A nerve that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].
Abdominal part of aorta: the distal part of the descending aorta, which is the continuation of the thoracic part and gives rise to the inferior phrenic, lumbar, median sacral, superior and inferior mesenteric, middle suprarenal, renal, and testicular or ovarian arteries, and celiac trunk[BTO]. The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of descending aorta(of the thorax). [WP,unvetted].
An artery that originates from the abdominal aorta.
The part of the ventral body cavity that is within the abdomen proper (excluding the pelvic cavity).
A ganglion that is part of a abdominal segment of trunk.
A blood vessel that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].
A bone that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of connective tissue that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].
An organ or element that is part of the adbominal segment of the organism. This region can be further subdivided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic region.
A muscle organ that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].
The abdominal segment of the torso.
A skin of body that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].
A viscus that is part of a abdomen.
The tissues that surround the organs that are present within the abdominal cavity. The abdominal wall tissue is composed of layers of fat, parietal peritoneum, fascia, and muscles.
The part of the ventral body cavity that is within the abdominal segment of the trunk, which encompasses the abdomen proper plus pelvic cavity.
Anatomical structure that consists of cell parts and cell substances and together does not constitute a cell or a tissue.
An acellular anatomical structure that is the bounding layer of a anatomical structure.
An acinus that is part of a exocrine gland.
Portion of connective tissue composed of adipocytes enmeshed in areolar tissue.
Adipose tissue that is located in the abdominal region. This includes any subcutaneous fat, visceral fat or encapsulated adipose tissue depots.
A multicellular organism that existence_ends_with a post-juvenile adult stage and existence_starts_with a post-juvenile adult stage.
An outermost connective tissue covering of an organ, vessel, or other structure[WP].
An adventitia that is part of a esophagus.
Any portion of gas located in a part of the respiratory system that is composed primarily of air.
A submucosal gland found in a respiratory tract.
The part of the digestive system that excludes the hepatobiliary system.
A membranous sac that develops from the posterior part of the alimentary canal in the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles, and it is important in the formation of the umbilical cord and placenta in mammals[VHOG].
A sheet of somatopleure that grows upward over the embryo and eventually meets in the midline enclosing the embryo, eventually giving rise to the amnion and chorion[Kardong].
The terminal part of the large intestine, continuous proximally with the rectum and distally terminates with the anus.
An epithelium that is part of a anal canal.
A unilaminar epithelium that develops_from a ectoderm and is part of a anal region.
An endoderm that is part of a anal region.
The anus and surrounding regions. Encompasses both internal and external regions, where present.
A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of an anal region [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an anal region [Automatically generated definition].
A sphincter muscle that is part of a anal region.
Anatomical space which contains portions of one or more body substances and is bounded by the internal surface of one maximally connected anatomical structure. Examples: cranial cavity, pharyngeal recess space, nasal cavity, tooth socket, cavity of serous sac, lumen of stomach, lumen of artery, fornix of vagina.
Anatomical group that has its parts adjacent to one another.
A collection of anatomical structures that are alike in terms of their morphology or developmental origin.
Any tube, opening or passage that connects two distinct anatomical spaces.
An anatomical space which is the lumen of some anatomical conduit and connects two or more spaces together[FMA,modified].
Biological entity that is either an individual member of a biological species or constitutes the structural organization of an individual member of a biological species.
An anatomical structure that connects two structures.
A portion of an organ, such as the liver, lung, breast, or brain.
Non-material anatomical entity of three dimensions, that is generated by morphogenetic or other physiologic processes; is surrounded by one or more anatomical structures; contains one or more organism substances or anatomical structures.
Material anatomical entity that is a single connected structure with inherent 3D shape generated by coordinated expression of the organism’s own genome.
A two dimensional anatomical structure that is the boundary between an anatomical structure and an anatomical substance, an anatomical space or the organism’s environment. Examples include the surface of your skin, the surface of the lining of your gut; the surface of the endothelium of you aorta that is in contact with blood.n Old definition: ‘Non-material anatomical entity of two dimensions, that is demarcated by anatomical lines or points on the external or internal surfaces of anatomical structures.’ Note, in the new definition, the space referred to is not necessarily an anatomical space. It may be the outside of an organism.
Material anatomical entity that forms the outermost boundary of an anatomical structure.
Multicellular, connected anatomical structure that has multiple organs as parts and whose parts work together to achieve some shared function.
Organ component adjacent to an organ cavity and which consists of a maximal aggregate of organ component layers.
Anlagen are populations of contiguous cells, typically arranged in one plane, that are morphologically indistinct, but that already correspond in extent to a later organ/tissue.
A subdivision of the digestive tract in humans that includes the rectum, the anal canal and the anus.
An epithelium that is part of a anterior chamber of eyeball.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, and bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and part of the crystalline lens.
[ALPM; anterior lateral plate mesoderm; mesoderm-derived structure; embryonic tissue; is part of; material anatomical entity]
A transparent homogeneous acellular layer, 6 to 9 um thick, lying between the basal lamina of the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea; it is considered to be a basement membrane.
[anterior neural tube; develops from; anatomical entity; is part of; embryonic structure; pre-chordal neural plate]
[anterior_to; posterior region of body; only in taxon; organism subdivision; Bilateria; anterior region of body]
Any of the parts of the eye that lie in front of, or ventral to, the lens (inclusive).
The anterior segment of the lamellated connective tissue layer of the cornea.
Front (ventral) portion of the vascular, pigmentary, or middle coat of the eye, including the ciliary body and the iris.
A vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.
[heart left ventricle; is part of; anterior wall of left ventricle; in_anterior_side_of]
Region of wall of right ventricle which is continuous with the lateral and septal walls of right ventricle.
Orifice at the opposite end of an animal’s digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to expel feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during digestion, which, depending on the type of animal, may be one or more of: matter which the animal cannot digest, such as bones; food material after all the nutrients have been extracted, for example cellulose or lignin; ingested matter which would be toxic if it remained in the digestive tract; and dead or excess gut bacteria and other endosymbionts.
The main trunk of the systemic arterial system that carries blood from the heart to all the organs and other structures of the body, bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation.
The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of aorta tissue that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.
The dense connective tissue which contains predominantly elastic fibers and is found in the tunica media of the aorta wall.
The thin layer of flat cells that line the aorta and form a barrier between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
The nonstriated, involuntary muscle tissue located in the wall of the aorta.
The outermost layer of the aorta wall, containing connective tissue and collagen and elastic fibers.
The innermost layer of the aorta, containing the endothelium and an inner elastic membrane.
The middle layer of the aorta wall, containing the smooth muscle layer and elastic fibers.
An anatomical wall that is part of an aorta, enclosing the luminal space.
The dilated structure that is lined by endothelial cells and located at the arterial pole of the heart just above (distal to) the truncus arteriosus in mammalian embryos; it is the primordial vascular channel from which the aortic arches (and eventually the dorsal aortae) arise; the aortic sac is homologous to the ventral aorta of gill-bearing vertebrates.
The spiral septum that separates the truncus arteriosus into a ventral pulmonary trunk and the dorsal aorta[MP]. The aorticopulmonary septum is developmentally formed from neural crest, specifically the cardiac neural crest, and actively separates the aorta and pulmonary arteries and fuses with the interventricular septum within the heart during development. The actual mechanism of septation of the outflow tract is poorly understood, but is recognized as a dynamic process with contributions from contractile, hemodynamic, and extracellular matrix interactions.
Multilayered ectodermal region at the distal tip of a limb or fin bud necessary for the proper development of the underlying mesenchyme[MP,modified]. Along with the zone of polarizing activity, it is a crucial organizing region during limb development[WP].
Major subdivision of an organism that protrudes from the body[DOS, CARO].
A blood vessel that is part of a limb/fin.
An organism subdivision that includes both an appendage and its associated girdle region. Note that this includes both the skeletal elements and associated tissues (integument, muscle, etc).
An organism subdivision that encompasses the region containing the pectoral or pelvic girdle. Note that this includes both the skeletal elements and associated tissues (integument, muscle, etc).
Any collection of muscles that is part of an appendage.
A vasculature that is part of a limb/fin.
Subdivision of the skeletal system which consists of the appendicular skeleton plus associated joints.
Subdivision of skeleton which which consists of all the skeletal elements in in the pectoral and pelvic appendage complexes[cjm].
A thick watery refractive medium that fills the space between the lens and the cornea[WP].
The convex portion of the aorta between the ascending and descending parts of the aorta; branches from it include the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery; the brachiocephalic trunk further splits to form the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery.
A ligament that is part of a diaphragm.
Loose connective tissue located at the outer and inner layers of organs. Examples: submucosal connective tissue, tunica adventitia of artery, papillary dermis, superficial fascia of dorsum of hand.
A blood that is part of a artery.
A blood vessel that is part of the arterial system. Includes artery, arteriole and aorta. only in MA - supertype of artery, arteriole, aorta.
The part of the cardiovascular system consisting of all arteries.
An endothelium that is part of an arterial system [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an arterial system [Automatically generated definition].
The smallest division of the artery located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries[GO].
An arteriole that is located in the anorectum.
An arteriole located in the colon.
A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an arteriole [Automatically generated definition].
An epithelial tube or tree of tibes that transports blood away from the heart[modified from AEO definition].
[labial artery; supplies; artery of lip]
The inferior labial artery (inferior labial branch of facial artery) arises near the angle of the mouth; it passes upward and forward beneath the Triangularis and, penetrating the Orbicularis oris, runs in a tortuous course along the edge of the lower lip between this muscle and the mucous membrane. It supplies the labial glands, the mucous membrane, and the muscles of the lower lip; and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side, and with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery.
A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an artery [Automatically generated definition].
An anatomical wall that is part of an artery [Automatically generated definition].
Sense organ embedded in the integument and consisting of one or a cluster of sensory neurons and associated sensory structures, support cells and glial cells forming a single organised unit with a largely bona-fide boundary.[FBbt].
One of the main divisions of the whole organism of arthropods formed from groups of segments. Strictly speaking the term “tagma” cam be used for any metameric organism, however we follow the common usage which is to restrict the term to arthropods.
An articular capsule (or joint capsule) is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint. [WP,unvetted].
Anatomical system that consists of all the joints of the body.
Anatomical cluster that connects two or more adjacent skeletal elements or hardened body parts.
The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta[GO]. A portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 cm behind the posterior surface of the sternum. The total length is about 5 cm in length [Wikipedia].
Mesenchyme that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.
An area of conducting tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart that conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles.
An anatomical junction that divides and overlaps with and atrium and a ventricle in the heart.
The wall of the heart that separates the right atrium and left ventricle; and is located just above the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve.
Epithelium that consists of epithelial cells not arranged in one ore more layers.
Is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
Ganglion that has dendrites that form a junction between autonomic nerves originating from the central nervous system and autonomic nerves innervating their target organs in the periphery. There are two subtypes, sympathetic ganglion and parasympathetic ganglion.
The autonomic nerve is a small nerve which carries postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons from the zygomaticotemporal nerve; a branch of the maxillary nerve, to the lacrimal nerve; a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. These neurons derive from the superior cervical ganglion and the pterygopalatine ganglion respectively. They will travel to the lacrimal gland via the lacrimal nerve. Parasympathetic will induce lacrimation and vice versa.
The autonomic nervous system is composed of neurons that are not under conscious control, and is comprised of two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The autonomic nervous system regulates key functions including the activity of the cardiac (heart) muscle, smooth muscles (e.g. of the gut), and glands[GO].
The axial mesoderm includes the prechordal mesoderm and the chordamesoderm. It gives rise to the prechordal plate and to the notochord.
One of the skeletal muscles of the head and neck, spine, and ribs.
Musculature of the head and neck, spine, and ribs.
Subdivision of the skeletal system which consists of the axial skeleton plus associated joints.
Subdivision of skeleton which consists of cranial skeleton, set of all vertebrae, set of all ribs and sternum[FMA, modified].
A blood vessel that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of connective tissue that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].
A nerve that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].
[basal plate metencephalon; metencephalon basal plate; neural tube basal plate]
An acellular membrane that is part of the epithelium, lies adjacent to the epithelial cells, and is the fusion of the the basal lamina and the reticular lamina.
A flattened, almost circular bilaminar plate of cells formed when the inner cell mass (aka embryoblast) forms two epithelial layers, each of a distinct lineage, separated by an extracellular basement membrane: the external (dorsal) layer is called the epiblast and the internal (ventral) layer is called the hypoblast (aka primitive endoderm); together, they compose the bilaminar embryonic disc.
Vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by hepatocytes and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium.
Any of the ducts that form the biliary tree, carrying bile from the liver to the small intestine.
Any epithelium that lines one of the bile ducts.
[epithelial sac; hepatic diverticulum; is part of; develops from; endodermal part of digestive tract; epithelium of foregut-midgut junction; hepatobiliary system; biliary bud; septum transversum; digestive tract diverticulum]
One of the fine terminal elements of the bile duct system, leaving the portal canal, and pursuing a course at the periphery of a lobule of the liver[BTO]. the excretory ducts of the liver that connect the interlobular ductules to the right or left hepatic duct[MP].
Organ system subdivision that consists of the organs and ducts that are involved in the production and transportation of bile. In most species this is the gallbladder and the bile ducts (biliary tree).
A complex network of conduits that begins with the canals of Hering (intralobar bile duct) and progressively merges into a system of interlobular, septal, and major ducts which then coalesce to form the extrahepatic bile ducts, which finally deliver bile to the intestine, and in some species to the gallbladder. The path in many species is as follows: Bile canaliculi -> Canals of Hering (intralobar bile duct) -> interlobular bile ducts -> intrahepatic bile ducts -> left and right hepatic ducts merge to form -> common hepatic duct exits liver and joins -> cystic duct (from gall bladder) forming -> common bile duct -> joins with pancreatic duct -> forming ampulla of Vater -> enters duodenum [WP]
A membranous sac in animals that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.
The mammalian blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells containing two cell types, the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm[GO].
Organism at the blastula stage - an early stage of embryonic development in animals. It is produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consists of a spherical layer of around 128 cells surrounding a central fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the developmental sequence.
An early stage of embryonic development in animals. It is produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consists of a spherical layer of around 128 cells surrounding a central fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the developmental sequence.
A fluid that is composed of blood plasma and erythrocytes.
Blood islands are structures in the developing embryo which lead to many different parts of the circulatory system. They primarily derive from plexuses formed from angioblasts. Within them, vacuoles appear through liquefaction of the central part of the syncytium into plasma. The lumen of the blood vessels thus formed is probably intracellular. The flattened cells at the periphery form the endothelium. The nucleated red blood corpuscles develop either from small masses of the original angioblast left attached to the inner wall of the lumen or directly from the flat endothelial cells. In either case the syncytial mass thus formed projects from and is attached to the wall of the vessel. Such a mass is known as a blood island and hemoglobin gradually accumulates within it. Later the cells on the surface round up, giving the mass a mulberry-like appearance. Then the red blood cells break loose and are carried away in the plasma. Such free blood cells continue to divide. Blood islands have been seen in the area vasculosa in the omphalomesenteric vein and arteries, and in the dorsal aorta[WP, unvetted].
Any of the smallest blood vessels where blood circulates within organ tissues. Microvessels include terminal arterioles, metarterioles, capillaries, and venules (but exclude lymphatic capillaries). Arterioles carry oxygenated blood to the capillaries, and blood flows out of the capillaries through venules into veins.
The liquid component of blood, in which erythrocytes are suspended.
A vascular network consisting of blood vessels.
A vessel through which blood circulates in the body.
Elastic tissue layer that lines a blood vessel layer.
An endothelium that lines the blood vasculature. Other endothelia may line lymph vessels, the heart.
Any of the tissue layers that comprise a blood vessel. Examples: tunica media, tunica adventitia.
Smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Liquid components of living organisms. includes fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as body water that normally is not.
Any substance in the body or expelled from the body that is in a gaseous state.
Dermal, epidermal, glandular and pigment structures of the body integument.
The body of stomach is the part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined[GO].
The region of the organism associated with the visceral organs.
An anatomical boundary that corresponds to some physical discontinuity. One might argue that all boundaries are actually fiat in the sense that there must be some fiat element at a fine enough scale of granularity. This ontology choses to ignore this issue as below the level of granularity relevant to anatomy. (DOS121102)
The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.
Skeletal element that is composed of bone tissue.
Anatomical space that is an opening in a bone, usually for passage of blood vessels or nerves.
The soft tissue that fills the cavities of bones.
A bone that is part of an appendage girdle complex (i.e. any bone in a limb, fin or girdle).
A bone that is part of a craniocervical region.
A bone that is part of the dorsal region of an animal.
A bone that is part of an appendage [Automatically generated definition].
A bone element that is part of a jaw region.
Any bone that is part of the lower jaw skeleton. This includes (when present): the dentary/mandible, the articular, the splenial, the suprangular.
A bone that is part of a pectoral complex. Examples: scapula, manus phalanx, any carpal bone, any bone of the pectoral fin.
A bone that is part of a pelvic complex. Examples: pubis, ischium, fot phalanx, any tarsal bone, any bone of the pelvic fin or girdle.
A bone that is part of a reproductive organ.
Skeletal tissue with a collagen-rich extracellular matrix vascularized, mineralized with hydroxyapatite and typically including osteocytes located in lacunae that communicate with one another by cell processes (in canaliculi). Bone is deposited by osteoblasts.
The short first aortic arch branch and divides into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery.
The vasculature consisting of brachiocephalic arteries and veins.
The left and right brachiocephalic veins in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. This is at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. These great vessels merge to form the superior vena cava. The brachiocephalic veins are the major veins returning blood to the superior vena cava.
The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell[WP].
A blood vessel that is part of a brain [Automatically generated definition].
Vascular endothelium found in blood vessels of the blood-brain-barrier.
A gray matter that is part of a brain [Automatically generated definition].
Stalk-like part of the brain that includes amongst its parts the medulla oblongata of the hindbrain and the tegmentum of the midbrain[ZFA,MP,generalized]. ‘brainstem’ is a loose term that sometimes refers to the ventral parts o the brain except for any part of the telencephalon - sometimes it includes the diencephalon or subpallial telencephalon structures (ISBN:0471888893). Here we use it in a more restriced sense, to include only the medulla oblongata, pons (when present) and the midbrain tegmentum (following the ZFA definitions).
A nucleus of brain that is part of a brainstem.
[branch of external carotid artery; external carotid arterial subdivision; branching part of; systemic artery; structure with developmental contribution from neural crest]
A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.
A systemic artery that supplies the lung with with oxygenated blood. Although there is much variation, there are usually two bronchial arteries that run to the left lung, and one to the right lung.
An anatomical cavity that is part of a bronchus.
A mucosa that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].
The bronchial veins are small vessels that return blood from the larger bronchi and structures at the roots of the lungs. The right side drains into the azygos vein, while the left side drains into the left superior intercostal vein or the accessory hemiazygos vein. The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries. The veins, however, do not return all of the blood supplied by the arteries; much of the blood that is carried in the bronchial arteries is returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins. [WP,unvetted].
The conducting airway of the lungs found terminal to the bronchi; these structures contain neither cartilage nor mucous-secreting glands; the epithelium of the bronchioles becomes thinner with each branching.
The upper conducting airways of the lung; these airways arise from the terminus of the trachea.
A basement membrane that is part of a bronchus.
A portion of connective tissue that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].
An elastic tissue that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].
A submucosal gland located in a bronchus.
The thin bilaminar membrane derived from the prechordal plate that is devoid of mesoderm and formed by the apposition of the stomodeal ectoderm with the foregut endoderm; after the embryonic head fold has evolved it lies at the caudal limit of the stomodeum, forming a septum between the primitive mouth and pharynx; the membrane eventually disappears, and thus a communication is established between the mouth and the future pharynx.
A transient fetal dilation of the distal (or cranial) heart tube located where the arterial trunk joins the ventral roots of the aortic arches.
A myocardium that is part of a bulbus cordis [Automatically generated definition].
An organ of sight that includes the camera-type eyeball and supporting structures such as the lacrimal apparatus, the conjunctiva, the eyelid.
Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules.
A blood that is part of a capillary.
A capillary that is part of the anorectum.
A capillary that is part of the brain.
A capillary that is part of the colon.
A capillary that is part of a small intestine.
The elastic, clear, membrane-like structure, that is outer most layer of the lens.
Cardiac chamber in which blood enters the heart.
A cardiac chamber surrounds an enclosed cavity within the heart. generic enough to cover FBbt:00003156 heart chamber but this is a cavity. GO defines it as the cavity. TODO - move subclasses. Note this also includes sinus venosus
The embryonic connective tissue made up of loosely aggregated mesenchymal cells, supported by interlaminar jelly, that gives rise to the developing cardiac structures.
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a left atrium [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a left ventricle [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a right atrium [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a right ventricle [Automatically generated definition].
Muscle tissue composed of cardiac muscle cells, forming the muscles of the heart[ZFA,modified].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of an atrium [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a cardiac septum [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a interatrial septum [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of an interventricular septum [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a myocardium [Automatically generated definition].
[cardiac muscle tissue of ventricle; cardiac ventricle; cardiac muscle tissue of myocardium; ventricular muscle; is part of; myocardium of ventricle]
Portion of neural crest that develops from the dorsal neural tube. It overlaps the vagal neural crest and migrates to populate the pharyngeal arches 3, 4 and 6 (producing structures in the head) and to the heart, forming connective tissue that separates the great vessels of the heart. [Wikipedia].
The cardiac Purkinje fiber is part of the cardiac conduction system that receives signals from the bundle of His and innervates the ventricular cardiac muscle.
The thin membranous structure between the two heart atria or the thick muscular structure between the two heart ventricles.
Dense connective tissue that separates the atria from the ventricles and provides physical support for the heart.
Vein of heart that drains the myocardium.
Cardiac chamber through which blood leaves the heart.
The first recognizable structure derived from the heart field.
The splanchnic mesoderm in the cardiogenic region where the heart develops; it gives rise to endocardial heart tubes that fuse to form the primordial cardiac tube, the heart primordium[web]. Two migratory heart primordia that move ventrally during the course of neurulation, and then fuse[XAO].
An region of the mesoderm that includes anterior lateral mesoderm of the first heart field plus contiguous pharyngeal mesoderm that gives rise to second-heart-field-derived regions of the heart and branchiomeric muscles.
Anatomical system that has as its parts the heart and blood vessels.
An elastic tissue that is part of a circulatory system [Automatically generated definition].
An endothelium that is part of the cardiovascular system.
[carotid artery endothelium; is part of; carotid artery segment; carotid endothelium; endothelium of artery; carotid epithelium]
One of: the common carotid artery, or its branches, the external and internal carotid arteries.
Skeletal element that is composed of cartilage tissue and may be permanent or transient.
A cartilage element of chondrocranium. Example: neurocranial trabecula.
The hyaline cartilaginous structures that support the bronchi, present as irregular rings in the larger bronchi (and not as regular as in the trachea), and as small plates and islands in the smaller bronchi; as the branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline cartilage in the walls decreases until it is absent in the smallest bronchioles[MP].
A cartilage element that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].
Skeletal tissue that is avascular, rich in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and typically includes chondrocytes within isolated lacunae. Cartilage tissue is deposited by chondroblasts. Previous: “A portion of connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate[GO]. Regular connective tissue, which consists of chondrocytes and related cells, the intercellular matrix of which is chondrified. Examples: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage[FMA]. an avascular supporting and articular skeletal tissue. It also functions as the primary endoskeletal support in vertebrate embryos. Cartilage is deposited by and is composed of chondroblasts and chondrocytes separated by an extracellular matrix, which may or may not mineralize depending on cartilage type, age, or taxon[Hall and Witten].” See also FMA:71500 Set of cartilages, FMA:55107 Cartilage organ, FMA:12264 Articular cartilage. // elements made from cartilage, cartilage-like, or chondroid tissues evolved in invertebrates[H&W]
Cell condensation that is an aggregation of mesenchymal cells that are committed to differentiate into chondroblasts and chondrocytes.
Nonsynovial joint in which the articulating bones or cartilages are connected by cartilage. Examples: Spheno-occipital synchondrosis, first sternocostal joint, pubic symphysis.[FMA].
The primitive cartilagionous skeletal structure of the fetal skull that grows to envelop the rapidly growing embyonic brain. In humans, the chondrocranium begins forming at 28 days from mesenchymal condensations and is fully formed between week 7 and 9 of fetal development. While the majority of the chondrocranium is succeeded by the bony skull in most higher vertebrates, some components do persist into adulthood. In Cartilagious fishes and Agnathans, the chondrocranium persist throughout life. Embryologically, the chondrocranium represent the basal cranial structure, and lay the base for the formation of the endocranium in higher vertebrates[WP].
Compound organ that contains one or more macroscopic anatomical spaces.
[cavity of cardiac chamber; luminal space of; surrounded by; anatomical entity; anatomical cavity; endocardium; immaterial entity; cardiac chamber cavity]
Luminal space of the left atrium of the heart.
Luminal space of the left ventricle of the heart.
An anatomical space that is enclosed by a pharynx.
Luminal space of the right atrium of the heart.
Luminal space of the right ventricle of the heart.
The first major branch of the abdominal aorta. dorsal aorta in Kardong
A cluster of cells, largely surrounded by a morphological boundary.
A small cluster of cells of various types which form a discrete structure, largely delimited by a morphological boundary and whose components work together to make the whole structure capable of a specific function. Examples include arthropod sensilla.
Anatomical structure that is an aggregation of similar cells from which cartilages and bones form, and from which chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are initiated during repair and/or regeneration. (Hall and Miyake 1995).
The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the neural tube derivatives: the brain and spinal cord. In invertebrates it includes central ganglia plus nerve cord.
A multi cell part structure that is part of a central nervous system.
A layer of of the central nervous system that is part of gray matter.
The three-lobed cloverleaf-shaped aponeurosis situated at the center of the diaphragm; the central tendon is fused with the fibrous pericardium that provides attachment for the muscle fibers.
Vein that is central to a lobule in the liver.
An artery of the neck.
[only in taxon; subdivision of organism along main body axis; Sarcopterygii; neck subdivision; cervical region; is part of; neck]
A spinal cord segment that adjacent_to a cervical region.
A gray matter of spinal cord that is part of a cervical spinal cord.
A ventral horn of spinal cord that is part of a cervical spinal cord.
A segment of the eyeball that is filled with refractive media.
[chemosensory sensory organ; chemosensory organ; capable of; sensory perception of chemical stimulus; nervous system; is part of; material anatomical entity; chemosensory system; sense organ]
[sensory perception of chemical stimulus; chemosensory system; capable of]
Hat part of the duodenal wall traversed by the ductus choledochus, ductus pancreaticus, and ampulla.
Endoskeletal elements that encase the brain, nose, inner ear[cjm]. that part of the neurocranium formed by endochondral ossification and comprising the bones of the base of the skull[TFD].
The portion of neural plate posterior to the mid-hindbrain junction.
The central region of trunk mesoderm. This tissue forms the notochord.
A portion of the respiratory and digestive tracts; its distal limit is the superior part of the esophagus and it connects the nasal and oral cavities with the esophagus and larynx; it contains the valleculae and the pyriform recesses; its upper limits are the nasal cavity and cranial base.[FEED]. Consider generalizing to deuterostome pharynx
The outermost extraembryonic membrane of amniotes. This term refers to the amniote structure. It is distinct from the concept of chorion in insects
An extraembryonic structure that develops_from a ectoderm and is part of a chorion.
A mesenchyme that is part of a chorion.
That portion of the chorionic wall in the region of its uterine attachment, which gives rise to chorionic villi; it consists of the mesoderm that lines the chorionic vesicle and, on the maternal side, of the trophoblast that lines the intervillous spaces; in the last half of gestation, the mesodermal connective tissue is largely replaced by fibrinoid material, and the amnionic membrane is adherent to the fetal side of the plate.
One of the minute vascular projections of the fetal chorion that combines with maternal uterine tissue to form the placenta.
The part of the eye that consists of both the retina and the optic choroid.
A blood vessel that is part of a choroid [Automatically generated definition]. cannot find singular in FMA, using Set class
The thickened portion of the vascular tunic, which lies between the choroid and the iris, composed of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes.
A double layer covering the ciliary body that produces aqueous humor.
The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscle in the middle layer of the eye that controls the eye’s accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour through Schlemm’s canal. [WP,unvetted].
The ciliary processes are formed by the inward folding of the various layers of the choroid, i.e. , the choroid proper and the lamina basalis, and are received between corresponding foldings of the suspensory ligament of the lens.
Simple columnar epithelium in which the luminal side of the cells bears cilia. Examples: epithelium of trachea, epithelium of uterine tube.[FMA].
A ciliated columnar epithelium that is part of a oviduct.
Epithelium bearing vibratile cilia on the free surface.
A hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, contributes to the circulation of lymph, blood or analogs. Examples: a chambered vertebrate heart; the tubular peristaltic heart of ascidians; the dorsal vessel of an insect; the lymoh heart of a reptile.
Organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis[WP].
The first few specialized divisions of an activated animal egg; Stage consisting of division of cells in the early embryo. The zygotes of many species undergo rapid cell cycles with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells the same size as the original zygote. The different cells derived from cleavage are called blastomeres and form a compact mass called the morula. Cleavage ends with the formation of the blastula.
Organism at the cleavage stage.
Common chamber into which the intestines and excretory system opens. Arises during development in all vertebrates, but in many it becomes subdivided, lost or incorporated into other structures.
An epithelium that is part of a cloaca.
A gland that is part of a cloaca.
An anatomical space that is enclosed by a cloaca.
A mucosa that is part of a cloaca [Automatically generated definition].
Any muscle organ that is part of a cloaca.
A sphincter muscle that is part of a cloaca. the muscles of the cloacal sphincter specialise into the perineal muscles in mammals (Gegenbaur, 1883; Popowsky, 1899; Nishi, 1938).
The opening of the cloacal chamber to the outside of the organism. Birds maintain a single cloacal opening throughout their lives.
[cloacal villus; layer of microvilli; is part of; material anatomical entity; cloacal villi]
The cavity within the body of all animals higher than the coelenterates and certain primitive worms, formed by the splitting of the embryonic mesoderm into two layers. In mammals it forms the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities.
The aggregate of the coelemic cavity lumen plus the membranes that line the lumen.
A bodily fluid that is located in the coelom.
[colic artery; colon; supplies]
[collection of collagen fibrils; collagen trimer; composed_primarily_of; acellular anatomical structure; banded collagen fibril]
A portion of the large intestine before it becomes the rectum. In mammals, the colon is the most part of the large intestine, excluding the vermiform appendix, the rectum and the anal canal.
Vascular endothelium found in colon blood vessels.
An epithelium that is part of a colon [Automatically generated definition].
Mucosa that is part of a colon. The mucosa of the colon is lined by a simple columnar epithelium with a thin brush border and numerous goblet cells.
An epithelium that consists of columnar epithelial cells. Columnar epithelia are epithelial cells whose heights are at least four times their width. Columnar epithelia are divided into simple (or unilayered), and the rarer stratified (or multi-layered).[WP, modified].
[common atrial chamber; cardiac atrium; anatomical entity; embryonic structure; is part of]
The part of the biliary tree formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.
A bilaterally paired branched artery that originates from the aortic arches and divides into and includes as parts the internal and external carotid arteries[cjm].
In anatomy, the common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus (a part of the stomach), duodenum (a part of the small intestine) and pancreas. It arises from the celiac artery and has the following branches:.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct[GAID]. The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the convergence of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver). The common hepatic duct then joins the cystic duct coming from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct[WP].
An artery that connects two larger arteries. Grouping for anterior and posterior
A light sensing organ composed of ommatidia.
Anatomical structure that has as its parts two or more multi-tissue structures of at least two different types and which through specific morphogenetic processes forms a single distinct structural unit demarcated by bona fide boundaries from other distinct anatomical structures of different types.
Multi-tissue structure that is part of a compound organ.
The embryo and its adnexa (appendages or adjunct parts) or associated membranes (i.e. the products of conception) The conceptus includes all structures that develop from the zygote, both embryonic and extraembryonic. It includes the embryo as well as the embryonic part of the placenta and its associated membranes - amnion, chorion (gestational sac), and yolk sac[WP].
The cardiac conduction system consists of specialized cardiomyocytes that regulate the frequency of heart beat[GO].
Any portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of the conducting system of heart or the Purkinje fibers.
Tissue with cells that deposit non-polarized extracellular matrix including connective tissue fibers and ground substance.
A conical pouch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle in the chordate heart, from which the pulmonary artery arises[WP]. the anteriosuperior, smooth-walled portion of the cavity of the right ventricle, beginning at the supraventricular crest and terminates in the pulmonary trunk[MP].
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye that serves as the chief refractory structure.
A blood vessel that is part of a cornea [Automatically generated definition].
A monolayer of specialized, flattened, mitochondria-rich cells that lines the posterior surface of the cornea and faces the anterior chamber of the eye[WP].
The smooth stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the cornea.
Portion of tissue that is part of the eye and gives rise to the mature, fully layered cornea.
The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of corneal stroma that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.
The edge of the cornea where it joins the sclera; the limbus is a common site for the occurrence of corneal epithelial neoplasm. This location has parts such as blood vessels etc. See PMC2868485, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2695343
A capillary that is part of the coronary system.
Any of the arteries or veins that supply blood to the heart or return blood from the heart muscles to the circulation.
The costocervical trunk arises from the upper and back part of the subclavian artery, behind the scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side. Passing backward, it splits into the deep cervical artery and the supreme intercostal artery (or the Highest intercostal artery), which descends behind the pleura in front of the necks of the first and second ribs, and anastomoses with the first aortic intercostal (3rd posterior intercostal artery). As it crosses the neck of the first rib it lies medial to the anterior division of the first thoracic nerve, and lateral to the first thoracic ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. In the first intercostal space, it gives off a branch which is distributed in a manner similar to the distribution of the aortic intercostals. The branch for the second intercostal space usually joins with one from the highest aortic intercostal artery. This branch is not constant, but is more commonly found on the right side; when absent, its place is supplied by an intercostal branch from the aorta. Each intercostal gives off a posterior branch which goes to the posterior vertebral muscles, and sends a small spinal branch through the corresponding intervertebral foramen to the medulla spinalis and its membranes. [WP,unvetted].
A blood vasculature that is part of a head.
A bone that is part of a cranium.
A cartilage element that is part of the cranial skeleton.
Anatomical cavity that is the lumen of the skull and contains the brain.
The groups of nerve cell bodies associated with the twelve cranial nerves.
Any skeletal muscle that is part of the head region. defined generically so could in theory encompass FBbt:00003260 ‘skeletal muscle of head’, or the muscle of a starfish Aristotle’s lantern, but we restrict this to craniates. Skeletal muscles of the head originate from the non-segmented head mesoderm (Noden, 1983; Wachtler et al., 1984)
Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.
Nucleus that receives projections from or contains neurons that send projections through one of the cranial nerves.
Neural crest cells (NCCs) originating in the anterior part of the developing embryo and residing between the mid-diencephalon and the forming hindbrain; cranial NCCs migrate dorsolaterally to form the craniofacial mesenchyme that differentiates into various craniofacial cartilages and bones, cranial neurons, glia, and connective tissues of the face; these cells enter the pharyngeal pouches and arches where they give rise to thymic cells, bones of the middle ear and jaw (mandible), and the odontoblasts of the tooth primordia; like their counterparts in the trunk, cranial NCCs also contribute to the developing peripheral nervous system, along with the pigmented cell (i.e. melanocyte) lineage.
Any of the cranial nerves, or their central nervous system analogs (the optic tract, the epiphyseal tract). These analogs are not true nerves, and are instead evaginated sensory afferents emanating from the brain.
Ectodermal placode that develops in the head into a part of the sensory nervous system. With a few exceptions (lens, adenohypophyseal), cranial placodes are neurogenic.
A salt gland located in the cranium or head region.
Skeletal subdivision of the head including skull (cranium plus mandible), pharyngeal and/or hyoid apparatus.
Any muscle organ that is part of either the head or the neck.
The anteriormost subdivision of the body that includes the head, jaws, pharyngeal region and the neck (if present). In vertebrates this is the subdivision that includes the cervical vertebrae.
Musculature system of the pharyngeal and head regions.
A vein that is part of a craniocervical region.
Upper portion of the skull that excludes the mandible (when present in the organism).
The vertical crest of the interior wall of the right atrium that lies to the right of the sinus of the vena cava and separates this from the remainder of the right atrium.
An epithelium consisting of cuboidal epithelial cells.
A cuboidal epithelium that is part of a oviduct.
The slender connective tissue fiber in the extracellular matrix of skin tissue that is composed of microfibrils and amorphous elastin and is characterized by great elasticity.
An artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the cystic duct.
The tubular structure that conducts gall bladder contents from the gall bladder to the common bile duct.
End of the life of an organism.
The deep cervical artery (Profunda cervicalis) is an artery of the neck.
The part of the circulatory system that lies deep beneath the subcutaneous tissue layers away from the surface of the skin.
A blood vessel carrying deoxygenated blood far beneath the skin usually accompanying an artery.
Dense connective tissue is mainly composed of collagen type I. Crowded between the collagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts, fiber-forming cells, that manufacture the fibers. Dense connective tissue forms strong, rope-like structures such as tendons and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones; ligaments connect bones to bones at joints. Ligaments are more stretchy and contain more elastic fibers than tendons. Dense connective tissue also make up the lower layers of the skin (dermis), where it is arranged in sheets.
Irregular connective tissue is an irregular connective tissue, the intercellular matrix of which contains a dense irregular network of collagen and elastic fiber bundles. Examples: connective tissue of peritoneum, connective tissue of fibrous pericardium.
Mesenchyme with little extracellular matrix.
Connective tissue that is dominated by collagen fibres organized into a definitive pattern (e.g., parallel to one another), with comparatively fewer cells (mostly fibroblasts).
Skeletal element that forms superficially in the organism, usually in association with the ectoderm[VSAO].
Dermis-derived entity that is made of skeletal tissue.
Skeletal subdivision that undergoes direct development and includes elements that either develop in association with the basement membrane of the ectoderm or are homologous with such elements; includes dermatocranium, components of the appendicular skeleton, teeth and tooth-like elements of the oropharynx, and integumentary elements. This ontology covers metazoa, so we do not use exoskeleton as primary label, as in VSAO
Subdivision of skeleton that includes all dermal bones in the cranial skeleton[ZFA,modified].
A transitional population of migrating mesenchymal cells that derive from somites and that will become dermal cells.
The dermis is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the skin) and subcutaneous tissues, and is composed of two layers, the papillary and reticular dermis[WP].
An adipose tissue that is part of a dermis [Automatically generated definition].
A portion of connective tissue that is part of a dermis [Automatically generated definition].
The bilaminar epithelium formed from the myotome and dermatome.
A transparent homogeneous acellular layer found between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea[MP]. The strong, resistant, thin, noncellular fourth layer of the cornea, located between the endothelium (from which it is secreted) and the stroma. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system from the arch of aorta to the point where it divides into the common iliac arteries[GO]. The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The descending aorta is the part of the aorta beginning at the aortic arch that runs down through the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta is divided into two portions, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence with the two great cavities of the trunk in which it is situated. Within the abdomen, the descending aorta branches into the two common iliac arteries which serve the legs. [WP,unvetted].
The part of the aorta that extends from the arch of the aorta to the diaphragm, and from which arises numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest.
[developing anatomical structure; material anatomical entity; developmental structure; developing structure]
A delimited region of dense mesenchyme within looser mesenchyme.
A mesenchyme-derived anatomical entity undergoing a transtion to become another structure.
An embryonic or larval epithelium that is committed to form part of the nervous system.
A thin musculomebranous barrier that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Often used for breathing control.
A neuroepithelium some of whose cells are undergoing terminal differentiation to become neuronal cells.
Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs devoted to the ingestion, digestion, and assimilation of food and the discharge of residual wastes.
A duct that is part of a digestive system [Automatically generated definition].
Any of the organs or elements that are part of the digestive system. Examples: tongue, esophagus, spleen, crop, lunge feeding organ, tooth elements.
Any gland that is part of the digestive system.
A tube extending from the mouth to the anus.
Branch or outpocketing of the digestive tract.
An epithelium that lines the lumen of the digestive tract.
An anatomical junction between two parts of the digestive tract.
A smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris that functions as a dilator. [WP,unvetted].
The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.
The mesentery that originates from the dorsal side of the peritoneal cavity[ZFA].
The portion of mesentery attached to the greater curvature of the stomach is named the dorsal mesentery (or dorsal mesogastrium, when referring to the portion at the stomach), and the part which suspends the colon is termed the mesocolon. The dorsal mesogastrium develops into the greater omentum.
[dorsal pancreatic bud; is part of; endoderm-derived structure; develops from; pancreatis dorsalis; pancreas dorsal primordium; exocrine gland; has developmental contribution from; dorsal pancreas; trunk region element]
Pancreatic bud that gives rise to the accessory pancreatic duct.
An organ or element that part of the dorsum of the organism. Examples: spinal cord, vertebrae, muscles of back.
Subdivision of thorax, which in humans is the posterior part of the thorax and is demarcated from the chest by the external surface of the posterolateral part of the rib cage and the anterior surface of the thoracic vertebral column; together with the chest, it constitutes the thorax.
The part of the trunk that is in the dorsum[cjm].
Lateral neurogenic placodes positioned dorsal of the epibranchial placodes. The only remaining dorsolateral placode in land vertebrates is the otic/octaval placode
A major subdivision of an organism that is the entire part of the organism dorsal to a horizontal plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane. In vertebrares this includes the vertebral column..
A tubular structure that transports secreted or excreted substances.
An epithelium that is part of a duodenum.
A compound tubular submucosal gland found in that portion of the duodenum which is above the hepatopancreatic sphincter (Sphincter of Oddi). The main function of these glands is to produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion (containing bicarbonate)[WP].
A mucosa that is part of a duodenum [Automatically generated definition].
One of the two small elevations on the mucosa of the duodenum, the major at the entrance of the conjoined pancreatic and common bile ducts and the minor at the entrance of the accessory pancreatic duct.
The first part of the small intestine. At the junction of the stomach and the duodenum the alimentary canal is inflected. The duodenum first goes anteriorly for a short distance, turns dorsally, and eventually caudally, thus it is a U-shaped structure with two horizontal sections (a ventral and a dorsal one).
A lamina propria that is part of a duodenum.
. relation conflict: ZFA vs EHDAA2. Note EHDAA2 term renamed to ’early PA endoderm'
Epithelium composed of cells that develops from the ectoderm[FMA,modified].
Primary germ layer that is the outer of the embryo’s three germ layers and gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.
An ectoderm that is part of a buccopharyngeal membrane.
An anatomical structure that develops (entirely or partially) from the ectoderm.
A portion of the gut that is derived from ectoderm.
An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm[GO].
Connective tissue composed of elastic fibers.
Anatomical entity that comprises the organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
A life cycle stage that starts with fertilization and ends with the fully formed embryo.
A cardiovascular system that is part of a conceptus.
Endoderm-lined chamber that develops as pouch-like dilation of the caudal end of the hindgut and receives the allantois ventrally and two mesonephric ducts laterally; caudally it ends blindly at the cloacal membrane formed by the union of proctodeal (anal pit) ectoderm and cloacal endoderm, with no intervening mesoderm[MP].
An epithelium that is part of a embryonic cloaca.
An anatomical space that surrounded_by a embryonic cloaca.
One of five swellings formed during the development of the face.
A head that is part of a embryo.
[external ectoderm; basal cell layer of skin; embryonic skin basal layer; develops from; unilaminar epithelium; integument; ecto-epithelium; is part of]
Anatomical structure that is part of an embryo.
Any tagma (UBERON:6000002) that is part of some embryo (UBERON:6000052).
A portion of tissue that is part of an embryo.
[fetal uterus; has potential to develop into; presumptive structure; embryonic uterus]
The connection between the embryo proper and extraembryonic tissues.
An anatomical space with no opening to another space or to the exterior.
Epithelium that derives from the endoderm. Examples: urothelium, transitional epithelium of ureter, epithelium of prostatic gland.[FMA].
The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves[GO]. Swellings of tissue present between the endocardial and myocardial cell layers that will give rise to the interstitial cells of the cardiac valves[ZFA]. GO graph seems to suggest this is an endothelium. WP: The endocardial cushions are thought to arise from a subset of endothelial cells that undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transformation, a process whereby these cells break cell-to-cell contacts and migrate into the cardiac jelly (towards to interior of the heart tube). Latest (2010-06-01) new def suggested for GO, added above. Note that EHDAA2 has a more detailed model which we may later adopt. JB: Patterning makes the cushions lay down connective tissue in three domains that force out the local endothelial lining and so the leaflets form
The endothelial lining of the endocardium.
The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers[GO]. fixed in GO to reflect FMA. See email to David/Varsha June 18 2010
Endocardium that is part of the atrium.
Any endocardium that is part of the left ventricle of the heart.
Any endocardium that is part of the right ventricle of the heart.
Endocardium that is part of the cardiac ventricle.
Replacement bone that forms within cartilage.
A skeletal element that has the potential to participate in endochondral ossification, and may participate in intramembranous ossification.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products directly into the circulatory system rather than through a duct.[WP, modified].
The part of the pancreas that is part of the endocrine system and is made up of islet cells, which produce insulin, glucagon and somatostatin.
Anatomical system that consists of the glands and parts of glands that produce endocrine secretions and help to integrate and control bodily metabolic activity.
Primary germ layer that lies remote from the surface of the embryo and gives rise to internal tissues such as gut.
An endoderm that is part of a buccopharyngeal membrane.
An endoderm that is part of a foregut [Automatically generated definition].
An endoderm that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.
An endoderm that is part of a hindgut [Automatically generated definition].
An endoderm that is part of a midgut [Automatically generated definition].
An anatomical structure that develops (entirely or partially) from the endoderm.
A portions of the gut that is derived from endoderm.
A blood vessel that is part of a endometrium.
The mucous secreting gland associated with the mucuous membrane lining the uterus.
The layer of connective tissue comprised of the endometrial lining of the uterus which fluctuates in thickness throughout the menstrual cycle.
The glandular mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the estrous/menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.
An epithelium that is part of an endometrium [Automatically generated definition].
[uterine glands set; is part of; ciliated columnar oviduct epithelium; endometrium glandular epithelium; glandular columnar epithelium; endometrium epithelium]
Skeletal subdivision that undergoes indirect development and includes elements that develop as a replacement or substitution of other elements or tissues.
Any endothelium that has the quality of being cylindrical [Automatically generated definition].
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (endothelium, vascular), lymph vessels (endothelium, lymphatic), and the serous cavities of the body[MESH]. Simple squamous epithelium which lines blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart[FMA]. The term ’endothelium’ has been either restricted to the continuous cell layer of the vertebrates, as we are assuming here, or applied to all the cells able to adhere to the luminal surface of the vascular basement membrane (Casley-Smith 1980)
An endothelium that is part of an arteriole [Automatically generated definition].
An endothelium that is part of an artery [Automatically generated definition].
An endothelium that is part of a capillary [Automatically generated definition].
An endothelium that is part of a trachea.
An endothelium that is part of a vein [Automatically generated definition].
An endothelium that is part of a venule [Automatically generated definition].
Sum total of mesenchyme in the embryo.
The part of the conceptus that may be lost before birth or will be discarded at birth, or when the embryo becomes an independent organism.
The sum total of mesenchymal tissue in the pharyngeal arch region. Pharyngeal mesenchyme is undifferentiated, loose connective tissue derived mostly from mesoderm, and also contains ectodermally derived neural crest cells.
[pharyngeal arch system; embryonic tissue; digestive tract epithelium; is part of; entire pharyngeal arch endoderm; foregut epithelium; endo-epithelium]
Sum of all sensory systems in an organism.
Anatomical surface, which is the external surface of the whole body. Examples: There is only one body surface.
Outermost layer of cells surrounding the embryo.
In amniote animal embryology, the epiblast is a tissue type derived either from the inner cell mass in mammals or the blastodisc in birds and reptiles. It lies above the hypoblast. In mammalian embryogenesis, the columnar cells of the epiblast are adjacent to the trophoblast, while the cuboidal cells of the hypoblast are closer to the blastocoele. The epiblast, whilst referred to as the primary ectoderm, differentiates to form all three layers of the trilaminar germ disc in a process called gastrulation[WP]. The outer of the two layers of the blastoderm that form during gastrulation, corresponding to primitive ectoderm during gastrulation and to the definitive ectoderm after gastrulation[ZFA]
Cranial ganglion which develops from an epibranchial placode. Epibranchial ganglia orchestrate the development of the cranial neurogenic crest
Focal thickenings of the embryonic ectoderm that form immediately dorsal and caudal of the clefts between the pharyngeal arches and that produce the neuroblasts that migrate and condense to form the distal cranial ganglia.
Visceral intrapericardial fat contiguous with the myocardial surface.
A region of the serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart.
An epicardial layer that lines a cardiac ventricle.
A gland that is part of a epidermis.
Epimysium is a layer of connective tissue which ensheaths the entire muscle. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium, and perimysium. It is also continuous with tendons where it becomes thicker and collagenous.
A bud is a protrusion that forms from an epithelial sheet by localized folding.
An epithelial sheet bent on a linear axis.
[ductal epithelium; duct epithelium; epithelial tube; epithelial layer of duct; is part of]
An epithelial tube that is open at one end only.
An epithelial sheet is a flat surface consisting of closely packed epithelial cells.
Epithelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues, with tube shape and organization varying from the single-celled excretory organ in Caenorhabditis elegans to the branching trees of the mammalian kidney and insect tracheal system.
An epithelial tube open at both ends that allows fluid flow.
A closed epithelium with a lumen.
Portion of tissue, that consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells connected to each other by cell junctions and which is underlain by a basal lamina. Examples: simple squamous epithelium, glandular cuboidal epithelium, transitional epithelium, myoepithelium[CARO]. Editor note: surface epithelium may contain non-epithelial cells, such as melanocytes, lymphocytes and dendritic cells, within the sheet of epithelial cells. Do we consider these part of the epithelium, or located-in it?
The epithelial layer covering the biliary system. This includes the epithelium of the gallbladder (when present) as well as the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
An epithelium that is part of a bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].
An epithelium that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].
The epithelial layer that lines the luminal space of the esophagus.